幸运28官网

当前位置: 法学思想 -> 审判研究

关于法官职业化队伍幸运28官网的探索性研究(2018.6)

  发布时间: 2019-04-30 08:14:16


    【zhaiyao】jiyuduifaguanzhiyehuaduiwuxingyun28guanwang(zhiduxingyun28guanwang、rencaipeiyang),caiyonglishifenxi、bijiaofenxihebianzhengfenxidefangfa,zaiduixifangfazhifadaguojiatebieshiyingmeifaxihedalufaxiguojiafaguanpeiyangzhidu、fangfajijingyanjinxingbijiaoyanjiudejichushang,congyingrandejiaodu,shenruchanshifaguanzhiyehuabeijingxiatuijinxingyun28guanwangguofaguanzhiyehuapeiyangzhidugaigedemubiaohelujingxuanze;bingduitansuochuangxinfaguandexuanrenyukaohefangfa,wanshanjiaoyupeixunzhidu、zhiyebaozhangzhidudengxiangguanzhidudengwentijinxinglilunshangdetantao;jinercongsifashijianjiaoduduixingyun28guanwangguofaguanzhiyehuaduiwuxingyun28guanwangzhongyixiejutizhidudegaige、rencaipeiyangdexinfangfatichujianyi。

    【guanjianci】faguanzhiyehua   duiwuxingyun28guanwang

幸运28官网    faguanzhiyehua,jifaguanyixingshiguojiashenpanquanweizhuanmenzhiye,bingjubeidutedezhiyeyishi、zhiyejineng、zhiyedaodehezhiyediwei。duigongzuozhuangtaitichusangeyaoqiu,jibiaozhunhua、guifanhuahezhiduhua。

幸运28官网    yi、xingyun28guanwangguofaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangdebeijing

幸运28官网    1、faguanzhiyehuashiyifazhiguodebiranyaoqiu。xijinpingzongshujizaidangdeshijiudabaogaozhongzhichu,“jianchiyifazhiguoheyidezhiguoxiangjiehe,jianchiyifazhiguoheyiguizhidangyoujitongyi,shenhuasifatizhigaige,tigaoquanminzufazhisuyanghedaodesuzhi。”zheiyiyaoqiudetichu,duiyujiakuaifazhizhongguoxingyun28guanwangjuyouhuashidaiyiyi。xingyun28guanwangguojiangjianliyitaoyanmiguifan、jiegouheli、chengxuzhengdang、youxuyunxingfazhitixi,xingchengyoulidefazhibaozhangtixishifazhitixideneirongzhiyi,erqizhongduiwubaozhangyoushifazhibaozhangtixidezhongyaoneirong,xingyun28guanwangyizhigongzhengsifadesifagongzuozheduiwu,shiquanmiantuijinyifazhiguozhongyaozuchengbufen。

幸运28官网    2、faguanzhiyehuashishiyingguojixingshifazhandebiranyaoqiu。2017nian1yue18ri,xijinpingzailianheguorineiwazongbutichu“zhongguofangan”: goujianrenleimingyungongtongti,shixiangongyinggongxiang。xingyun28guanwangguoyijingjiaruduogeguojiaxingzuzhi,yingzunshouguojipubiantongxingdeguize。faguanzhiyehuashidangjinshijiejuyoupubianxingdexiandaisifayuanze,lianheguo《shijiesifadulixuanyan》di2tiaoguiding:“meigefaguanjunyingziyoudigenjuqiduishishidepingjiaheduifalvdelijie,zaibushoulaizirenhefangmianhuorenheyuanyindezhijiehuojianjiedexianzhi、yingxiang、youdao、yali、weixiehuoganshedeqingkuangxia,duianjianbinggongcaipan。”guojixingdefaguiyuguizeyeduisifagongzheng、xiaolv、tongyi、toumingtichulefeichanggaodeyaoqiu,yinci,faguanzhiyehuashiyingleshenpandulixinghetoumingxingzheiyiguojiashehuijibenzhunze,shirenminfayuanbixulvxingdeyiwu。

    3、faguanzhiyehuashisifaquanbenzhishuxingdeyaoqiu。sifaquandexingzhishipanduanquan,jifayuanxiangyoudeduijiufendangshirendeshishiwentizhuzhanghefalvwentizhuzhangyifajinxingpanduan,yiweihufadejiazhidezhongjuxingquanli。zhiyoujingguozhiyexunlian、anshufalv、tongxiaofaliderencainengdanrenfaguan。shenpanyueduli,faguanzhiyedezhuanmenhuachengduyeyuegao;xiangfan,faguandezhiyehuachengduyuegao,jiuyuenengcujinshenpandulihegongzheng。erzheshixiangfuxiangchengdebianzhengtongyiguanxi。

幸运28官网    4、faguanzhiyehuashishenpanquantediandekeguanyaoqiu。shenpanhuodongshifaguandaibiaoguojiachengfafanzui、jiejuefenzhengdehuodong,juyouguojiaqiangzhilihefalvquanweixing。fashengfalvxiaolidepanjue,dangshirenbixuzhixing。erqiefeijingfadingchengxu,shenpandejieguobudesuiyigenggai。makesishuo:“faguanchulefalvjiumeiyoubiedeshangsi。faguandezerenshidangfalvyunyongdaogebiechangheshigenjutaduifalvdechengzhidelijielaijieshifalv。”[makesiengesiquanji(di1juan).beijingrenminchubanshe,1995: 76.]zhiyoufaguanxingchengyigedulidezhiye,faguanzairenmendexinzhongyouzugoudequanwei,cainengyizhiyedequanweibaozhengpanjuedequanwei。

    er、xingyun28guanwangguodefaguanzhiyehuafazhanjincheng

    2002nian,yuanzuigaorenminfayuanyuanzhangxiaoyangzaiquanguofayuanduiwuxingyun28guanwanggongzuohuiyishangzhichu:“faguanzhiyehuashitigaofaguanduiwuzhengtisuzhidezhongyaotujing,zaijinhouxiangdangzhangdeshiqi,shifayuanxingyun28guanwangdeyitiaozhuxian”。faguanzhiyehuazheiyifazhihuamingtidetichu,shicongzhongguozhengzhi、jingji、wenhuafazhandeshijiguoqingchufa,zunxunsifaquanyunxingguilv,anzhaosifaquandebenzhishuxinghefaguanzhiyetedian,weizhongguofaguanduiwuxuanzedeyitiaozuijiafazhantujing。tongnian,zuigaorenminfayuanbanbude《guanyujiaqiangfaguanduiwuzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangderuoganyijian》,congqigefangmianchanshulefaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangdejutineirong。ji:jianliyangedefaguanzhiyezhunruzhidu、qianghuafaguandezhiyeyishi、peiyangfaguandezhiyedaode、tigaofaguandezhiyejineng、shulifaguandezhiyexingxiang、jiaqiangfaguandezhiyebaozhang、wanshanfaguandezhiyejiandu。

    yinggaishuo,faguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangdeneironghangailefaguanxuanren、faguanpeixun、faguanjinsheng、faguanjiandu、faguanchengjie、faguanbaozhangdengzhuduohuanjie。tashejifayuanrenshiguanlitizhi、fayuanjiaoyupeixuntizhiyijishenpanzhidudengduoxianggaige,tongshiyeyushehuizhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadefazhanshuipingyijigongminfalvyishideqiangruodengduozhongyinsuxiangguan。

    同年10月,由世界银行和最高人民法院联合主办单位:台湾宾果28

幸运28官网    2004nian9yue,zuigaofayuanhuishangzhongzubutongyi,zhengshiquedingzaihainangaoyuan、changzhouzhongyuandeng18jiafayuanjinxingfaguanzhulishidian。[renming、jiangjiye、luyunyun.fayuanduiwuxingyun28guanwangdebiyouzhilu: faguanzhiyehua---quanguofayuanfaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangyuanzhangluntanzongshu]2014nian6yue,zhongyangquanmianshenhuagaigelingdaoxiaozudisancihuiyishenyitongguo《guanyusifatizhigaigeshidianruoganwentidekuangjiayijian》he《shanghaishisifagaigeshidiangongzuofangan》,mingquedeyigezhongyaozhengcedaoxiangjiushi,yaoduifaguanshixingyoubieyuputonggongwuyuandeguanlizhidu,jianlifaguanyuanezhi,bagaosuzhirencaichongshidaobananyixian,bingzaihuyuedengliushengshixianxingshidianyuanezhigaige。dangdeshibajiesanzhongquanhuiyilai,sifazerenzhi、renyuanfenleiguanli、jianquanzhiyebaozhangzhidu、shengyixiadifangfayuanrencaiwutongyiguanlisixiangjichuxinggaigeluxuzaishidiandiquluodishenggen。

    2014nianshibajiesizhongquanhuizai《zhonggongzhongyangguanyuquanmiantuijinyifazhiguoruoganzhongdawentidejueding》mingquezhichu“jiaqiangfazhiduiwuxingyun28guanwang”,tichulefazhizhuanmenduiwuzhengguihua、zhuanyehua、zhiyehuagainian,jinyibutichule“wanshanfalvzhiyezhunruzhidu”he“jianlifaguan、jianchaguanzhujilinxuanzhidu。”

幸运28官网    xingyun28guanwangguodefaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangyizhizaitansuozhongqianjin,congdingcengshejijiaodutichuzongyuanze,jingguoshiyuniandechangshi、lunzheng,gaigemailuozhujianqingxi,gaigeneirongzhujianfengfu,zhidushejizhujianluodi。

    san、 xifangguojiafaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangqingkuangfenxi

幸运28官网    congshijiefanweilaikan,zhiyehuafaguanchanshengmoshizhuyaoyousanzhong:

    yishiyiyingmeiweidaibiaodeputongfaximoshi,qitedianshizhuzhonglinxuanduixiangdefalvshijianjingyan,guanche“nianzhang、jingyan、jingying”yuanze。yiyingguoweili,yaoxiangchengweifaguan,bixushouxianjingguo3niandaxuefaxuexuexi,jingguoyangedekaoshihuodefaxuexueshixuewei,ranhoutichushenqing,tongguokaoshijinruyingguolvshigonghuichengrendesidafaxueyuanzhongdeyisuoxuexi1nian,kaoshihegezhebeishouyulvshixuewei,zaijingguo1niandejianxi,chengweizhengshilvshi。ranhouzhishaojuyou7niandechutinglvshijinglihou、danrengaodengfayuanfaguanzeyaoqiuzhishaojuyou10nianyishangchutinglvshijingli,cainengbeitimingdanrenfaguan。youcikeyikanchu,chutinglvshidejingliduiyudanrenfaguanjuyoujuedingxingdeyiyi,danrenfaguanqianfalvshijianjingyandejileifeichangzhongyao。

幸运28官网    ershiyideguoweidaibiaodedalufaximoshi,qitedianshijiweiyangedefalvzhuanyehuaxuexihekaoshi,youqiyikaoshiweixianzhutezheng。yideguoweili,shouxianbixujieshouzhengguidaxuefaxuejiaoyu,biyebinghuodefaxuexueweihou,jiuyaocanjiadiyicisifakaoshi,tongguozhehuodejianxifaguanzige,ranhoujinxingweiqiliangniandeshixi。shixiqijian,jianxifaguanbixuzaiminshifating、xingshifating、jianchaguanbangongshi、mougexingzhengjigouyijisirenlvshishiwusuodougongzuoyiduanshijian。shixijieshuhou,jiangcanjiagengjiayangedediercisifakaoshi,youchixushutiandebishihekoushizucheng。tongguozhehuodehoubufaguanzige,keyicongshifalvzhiyerenhebumendegongzuo。danshiruoxiangchengweifaguan,haibixuxiangzhousifabutichushenqing,jingmianshihegehou,yourenshibumenxiangzhousifabuzhangtuijian,yousifabuzhangjuedingrenmingweichurenfaguan,jing3nianshiyonghegezhe,fangkebeirenmingweizhongshenfaguan。congzheigeguochengkeyikanchu,kaoshizaidalufaxiguojiafaguandechanshengzhongzhanzhudaohezhipeidiwei。

幸运28官网    sanshiribenteyoudehunhexingmoshi。ribenshixingdeshikaoshiyusifashijianbingzhongdeyuanze,shouxianbixuqudezhengguidaxuefalvbenkewenping,ranhoucanjiajiweiyangedeguojiatongyisifakaoshi,tongguozhezaicanjiayousifakaoshishenchaweiyuanhuizhuchidediercikaoshi,hegezhebeirenmingweisifayanxiuyuan,shouzuigaofayuanguanxia,zaisifayanxiusuoyanxiliangnianhoucanjiadisancikaoshi,tongguozhehuodejianxifaguanzige。jianxifaguanyaohuafeizhishao10nianshijiancongshihoubufaguan、jianchaguan、lvshihuozhefalvjiaoxuegongzuo,jileilezugoudesifashijianjingyanhou,cainengbeirenmingweizhengshifaguan。qianhou3ciyangedekaoshi,zongjizhiyouliushifenzhiyidebaokaozhezuizhongnenggouchengweifaguan。

    congshangshusanzhongmoshizhongkeyikanchu,shenrudefalvzhuanyezhishixuexi,fengfudefalvshijianjingyanjilei,shixuanbazhiyehuafaguandejichuheguanjian。xingyun28guanwangguoshixianfaguanzhiyehua,ziranyebunenglikaizheilianggejibenyaoqiu。zhengshitongguozheiliangfangmiandeyangeshaixuan,shifaguanjiqigongzuoyuqitazhiyelingyuxiangqubie,chengweiyizhongdulide、zhuanmenhuadezhiye。

    (yi)xuanbayurenqi

幸运28官网    1、renzhizige

    faguanzuoweishehuizhengyidehuashen,tabixupingjiezijiduifalvdexianshudelijie,yijuzijideliangxinhejingyan,duijiufenzuochudulidepanduanbingzuochucaipan,yihuifushehuidezhengyi。zheijiuyaoqiufaguanjuyouyangederenzhizige,cainengchengdanqishehuifuyutadeshenshengshiming。weicigeguodouguidingleyangedefaguanrenzhizige。

幸运28官网    diyi,faguandezhuanyehua。faguandezhuanyehuashizhirenherenchengweifaguandoubixujingyouyange、xitongdefalvyanxixunlian,bingqiedadaoguojiarenkedeyewusuzhi。xifangguojiadouquelilefaguanbixujuyoujijinyankudezhuanyehuabiaozhun,yibandouxuyaocongdaxuefakehuodefaxuexueshiyishangxuewei,ranhoujingguoyidingqixiandeshijianxunlian,yongyouxiangdangdefalvshiwunengliheshehuijingyan,caikebeixuanrenweifaguan。zaimeiguo,gongminchengweilianbangfaguanzhiqian,bixucongdaxuefaxueyuanbiyebinghuofalvzhiyeboshixuewei,ranhoujingguokaoshichengweilvshi,yongyou6nianyishangdelvshishengya。yingguoduifaguanrenzhizigejuyoujutideguiding。yibanlaishuo,quanzhidefaguanbixu“juyoufalvzhishihejingyan,panduanhefenxidenengli,youlianghaodejuedinghexingyun28guanwangjiqiao。fuyouquanwei、daode、gongzheng、nenggoulijieputongrenheshehui,xinggewenhe,youlimaohezunyan,duishehuixingyun28guanwangjuyouzeren。”[songbing.meiguoyudeguodesifazhidujisifachengxu,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe。]quanzhidefaguandoubixuconglvshizhongrenming,danrendifangfayuandefaguanbubaokuozhianfaguan,bixuyoubushaoyu7niandechutinglvshidejinglidanrengaodengfayuanfaguanzhiwuzhe,bixujuyou10nianyishangdechutinglvshidejinglifaguanzuichurenzhishidepingjunnianlingwei47sui,gaojifayuandefaguannianlingyibandouzai60suiyishang。faguanyibandoubiyeyujianqiao、niujindengmingpaidaxue,jubeifaguanzigederenshishangxuyaojingguoyouyeyufaguan、falvjierenshisuozuchengdezhuanmenweiyuanhuijinxingmianshiheyangedexuanba,caiyoukenengbeiquedingweifaguanhouxuanren。

幸运28官网    dier,faguandejingyanhua。zuoweifaguanbujinyaoyongyoufengfudefalvzhishi,erqieyebixuyongyoufengfudejingyan。yinweishenpanhuodongbujinshiluojituiliguocheng,gengshijingyanpanduanguocheng。yingmeifaxiguojiashifenzhongshifaguanrenzhiqiandefalvgongzuojingli。zaiyingguo40suiyiqianbeirenmingweifaguanshijishaodeshi。dalufaxiguojiasuiranbuxiangyingmeifaxineiyang,danyedouyaoqiufaguanrenzhiqiandefalvgongzuojingli,yibanzai30suiyiqianhennanqudefaguanzige。ciwai,duinianlingxianzhihaijuyoushulifaguanquanweiganhezerenxindegongneng。“yidanbeirenmingweifaguan,faguanmendouqingchudiyishidaosifarenmingshitamenlijingezhongkekedekaoshi、kaochaerdelaide。renminghuotuixuanweifaguan,beikanchengshiyishengzhongshanshanlaichidehuihuangchengjiu,yeshisuizhierlaidezunjingheweiwangdexingshishangdechengren。”[ 〔mei〕yuehan•henglimeilimanzhu,gupeidongyi,dalufaxi,xinanzhengfaxueyuanyinxing.]

幸运28官网    2、xuanrenfangshi

幸运28官网    guanyufaguandechanshengfangshi,daduoshuguojiacaiyongrenmingzhi,youguojiazuigaolifajiguanhuozuigaoxingzhengjiguanrenming,erbucaiyongxuanjuzhi。weilefangzhidifangshiliduisifahuodongdeganshe,fangzhitamentongguoduifaguanrenmingerganshefaguandulishenpan,yeweilefangzhifaguanchuyuduirenmingquandeganenhuokongjuerbudebuqufuyuzheizhongganshe,xifangguojiajihuhaowuliwaidibafaguanderenmingquanjizhongyouzhongyangtongyixingshi。rugenjumeiguoxianfaguiding,faguanyouzongtongtiming,bingzaiqudeyiyuandetongyihou,renminglianbangfayuandefaguan。

    3、renzhiqixian

幸运28官网    yibanqingkuangxia,xifangguojiadefaguanrenqidoushizhongshenzhi。faguanyidanbeirenming,jiuzhongshenrenzhi,chufeiyinpinxingbuduanerbeiyizhaoyangedechengxubamian。zaidalufaxiguojia,faguanyidanbeirenming,jikezhongshenrenzhi,zhizhituixiu。zairenzhiqijian,bujingfaguanbenrentongyi,bunengdiaodongqizhiwu,danzaibenyuanneibudiaodongbuzaicixian。zaiyingmeiguojia,“beirenmingweifaguanderenxingyun28guanwangdenianlingkeyidadao70huozhe75sui,shijishangyaobiqitazhengfuguanyuansuoyunxudenianlingxiandugaochu10nian。zai75suizhiqianchengweizishenfaguandexuduorenkeyirenzhidaogenggaodenianling。duirenzhinianlingdezheizhongkuanxianjianshaolefaguantuixiuhuozhuanzuoqitagongzuodekenengxing。”[ 〔mei〕gelundundeng,bijiaofalvchuantong,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshezhongwenban。]

幸运28官网    (er)jiaoyuyupeixun

幸运28官网    duifaguanjinxingjixujiaoyu,shigundongtigaofaguansuzhi,shizhishiyingshehuifazhanheshengrenshenpandeyoulicuoshi。xifangguojiazaishixianfaguanzhiyehuadeguochengzhongdoushifenzhongshiduifaguandejixujiaoyu,erbushijinjinyaoqiufaguanzhishijuyouxiangguandefalvzhuanyexueli,haiyingbaokuoguangfanderenwensuzhihezirankexuesuzhi。xiandaifazhiguojiayibandouyoufadadefaguanpeixunzhidu。

    1、deguozhiyefaguandepeiyang。

幸运28官网    deguodaxuefalvxidejiaoyujuyouhenqiangdexueshuxing。jieshouzheizhongjiaoyudexueshengwangwangzhiliyuzhangwoyizhongjishujishizaiketangwaiyeyaobianchagezhongfalvyilun,bingzaizhuxueshuozhijianjianliqimouzhonglianxi。deguodefaxuejiaoyu,daxuejieduandejiaoyuhecihoudezhiyexunlianzhijianjuyouqiansiwanlvdeguanxi,shenzhizaimouzhongchengdushangkeyishuo,erzheqishishiyigewanzhengguochengzhongbukefengedelianggezuchengbufen。deguodaxuedefalvximeiyoubiyezhidu,xueshengxuewanqigexueqiyishangdefalvkechengjikecanjiagebangdediyiciguojiakaoshi,kaoshihegezhebianbeichengweiyanxiusheng,jinxingliangniandeyanxiu,zhunbeidierciguojiakaoshi。jianyudaxuejiaoyuyuzhiyexunlianjifalvyanxiuzhijiandemiqielianxi,deguoxueshengyidanjinrudaxuefalvxixuexi,bianyiweizheqixuanzelezhiyefalvjiadeshengya。[ 〔ri〕damuyafu,bijiaofa,falvchubanshe。]

幸运28官网    deguoshixingyiyuanhuadefalvjiapeiyangmoshi。jideguojiangfaguan、jianchaguan、lvshidengsuoyoufalvzhiyezhezuoweiyigezhengtijiayipeiyang,jutibiaoxianzai,duiyubutongdefalvzhiyezhe,liangciguojiakaoshideneirongyijifalvyanxiudexiangmudouwanquanxiangtong。xueshengtongguodiyiciguojiakaoshizhihouyaojinxingzhishaoliangniandeyanxiu。zaiciqijiantamenxianhouyaozaifayuan、zhengfujigou、lvshishiwusuojinxingjianxi。ciwai,weilejileijingyan,tamenbixunachuliugeyuedeshijiandaotamensuoxuanzedeqiuzhibumenjianxi。yanxiuqijieshuhou,xueshengjiangjieshoudierciguojiakaoshi,kaoshihegezhejiangchengweihoubuguan,qizhongxuanzezuofaguandexueshengjiangchengweizhiyefaguan。zongzhi,daxuejiaoyuyuzhiyexunlianzaideguojinjinlianxizaileyiqi,erzhezhijiandeniudaibianshiliangciguojiakaoshi。

    2、meiguozhiyefaguandepeiyang。yingmeifaxiguojiadefaguandaduoshicongjuyouyidingzhiyejinglidelvshizhongxuanren,bucunzaixiangouzhoudaluguojianeizhongjieshouzhiyejiaoyuzhihoulijidanrenfaguandexianxiang。yinci,yingmeiguojiaduilvshidepeiyangguochengtongshiyejiushizaojiuzhiyefaguandeguocheng。meiguodefaxueyuanshimianxiangyicongdaxuebiyede、youzhiyufalvshiwugongzuoderen,jinxingzhuanmenxing、jishuxingjiaoyudechangsuo。zaizheili,faxuebuxiangdalufaxiguojianeiyang,beizuoweiyizhongkexuelaijiangshou,ershidaiyouhenqiangdecaozuohuasecai。zhengruyouxuezhezhichudeneiyang,zaimeiguodefaxueyuan,congjiaoshoudaoxueshengsuoguanxindedoushi“shenmeshifa”,erbuguanxin“shenmeyingdangshifa”。[ 〔ri〕damuyafu,bijiaofa,falvchubanshe。]erqie,faxueyuandebiyeshengshouxianzhinengcongshilvshizhiye,zhiyoulvshizhongdejiaojiaozhecainengyouxingbeirenmingweifaguan。erzheiduanzhangqidelvshishengyaduiyuyimingfaguanlaishuo,zaimouzhongyiyishangyeshiyizhongzhiyejiaoyu,ruguoshuolvshishishehuidejingyingfenzidehua,neime,zheizhongteshudejiaoyujiubaozhanglefaguanchengweijingyingzhongdejingying。yiner,meiguofaxueyuanshixingdeshidianxingdezhiyejiaoyu。

    4、yingguozhiyefaguandepeiyang

幸运28官网    yingguodefaguanyouzhiyeyuyeyuzhifen,zhianfaguanshidianxingdeyeyufaguan。chucizhiwai,qizhiyefaguanyexiangmeiguoyiyangdadouconglvshizhongxuanren。yingguodefalvjiaoyuzaiqilishichuantongdeyingxiangzhixiajuyouqibutongyuqitaguojiadedutezhichujiushilvshigonghuipeixundexuetushisecai,zheiyangdepeixunzaihendachengdushangshiyizhongshifuduitudideyanchuanshenjiao。

    (san)zhiyebaozhangjizhi

    xifangfadaguojiaweiquebaofaguanyifaduligongzhengdixingshishenpanquan,junduifaguandezhiyebaozhangwentizuolejiaoweimingquejutideguiding。rujianlilefaguanbukegenghuanzhi、faguansifahuomianzhi、zhuanzhizhihegaoxinzhidengzhiyebaozhangzhidu。faguanbukegenghuanzhi,shizhifaguanzairenqijiemanqian,feijingdanhe,budebeimianzhi、chezhi,huolingqitiqiantuixiu。faguansifahuomianzhi,shizhifaguanbuyinkeguanyuanyinsuozhidecaipancuowushouchufa,baozhengfaguanyifadulixingshizhiquanermeiyouhouguzhiyou。faguanzhuanzhizhiyouchengbudejianzhizhi,jifaguanzhianfaguanchuwaibudejianrenxingzhengzhiwu,budejianrenyiyuan,budejianrenqitayinglidezhiwuhuocongshizhengzhihuodong。faguangaoxinzhi,jijiyufaguangaogongzi、gaoshourudaiyu。faguandegongzishourugaoyugongwuyuan,yeshishijiejuedaduoshuguojiadetongli。liru,faguofaguanyongyouwanquandezhiyebaozhang,jiweijingbenrentongyi,budebeidiaolihuozhetisheng。[〔de〕ciweigetedeng,bijiaofazonglun,guizhourenminchubanshe。]ribenfaguanxiangshoujiaogaodegongziheqitafulidaiyu,ruzuigaofayuanyuanzhangyuzongliheyizhangdegongzixiangtong,qitazuigaofayuanfaguanyuguowudachendegongzixiangtong,yicitixiansifayuxingzhengdequanlipingdeng,erxiajifayuanfaguanjunxiangyouyouyuyibangongwurenyuandegongzifulidaiyu。[lengluosheng,ribenxiandaishenpanzhidu,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe。]zhisuoyizheiyang,keguanshangshuo,yishifaguandezhiyejiqishenpanxingweibeishehuigongrenweishiyizhongfuzadenaolilaodong,faguanshijiufendezuihoucaipanzhe,liyinghuodejiaogaodewuzhibaochouershigaoxinyouzhuyuyanglian。faguanzhiyedetedianjuedinglefaguanyingjinliangbimianyiyingliweimudedehuodong,xinjinjihushiqiweiyideshourulaiyuan。zheiyang,guojiajiubixubaozhengfaguanxiangshougaoxin,yibaozhengfaguanshenghuoandingfuyu,mianquhouguzhiyou,congerbushoujinqian、wuzhiheliyideyouhuo。faguanzhiyebaozhangjizhijibenshangbaozhenglefaguanjuyoujiaogaodeshehuijingjidiwei,shiqigongzuojuyouzhuanzhixing、wendingxing、gongzhengxing,zaiyidingchengdushangbaozhanglesifaduligongzhengjiazhideshixian。

    si、dangdaizhongguoshixianfaguanzhiyehuazhilujingxuanze

    zaizheigeweiquanlierfendoudeshidai,yifayuanweizhongxindesifajiguanchengdanzhexuanbuzhengyi、shixianzhengyideduteshiming。“faguandaibiaofalvjianglinrenjian”,yeyincifaguanchengdanqilesifadezhongren, buduanjiaqiangfaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwang,cainengshixiangsifagongzheng、jiakuaifazhiguojiadexingyun28guanwangjincheng。

幸运28官网    (yi)chuangxinfaguandexuanrenyukaoshifangfa

幸运28官网    youshenmeyangderenlaidanrenfaguan,zheishixingyun28guanwangguozhangqiyilaicongweijianduanguosikaodewenti。xiandaifaguanzhiduyaoqiufaguanbixuyouzhuanyerenyuandanren,zaiyiwangzhongshifaguanzhengzhisuzhidejichushang,haiyaojiaqiangduifaguanxuelizige、sifanengli、pindecaoshoudengfangmiandetiaojianyaoqiu。duiyuyouxuezherenweibutongdezhuanyefayuan,butongjibiedefayuan,qifaguankeyiyaoqiubutongdexuelishuiping,zheizhuyaoshiyuanyuxingyun28guanwangguomuqianfaguandesuzhipubianjiaodi,xuyaoyigeguoduqi,erqiebutongdefayuanduifaguannenglideyaoqiuyequeshiyousuobutong,rujicengfayuandefaguangengzhongyaodeshishenpanjinenghejingyan,gaoyijifayuanzeyaoqiufaguanduifalvyougengshenrudeyanjiuherenshi,zuigaofayuandefaguanzezhuiqiuduifalvjingshengengshencengcidelijie,zongjieshenpanjingyan、chuangzhianlidenengliyeyaogengqiang,suoyi,bizheyechizantongyijian,danrenweiwuluncengciyouhechabie,zhuanyedeyaoqiubixudedaomanzu。

幸运28官网    bizherenweikecanzhaokaoshizhidu,shelidulidetuijufaguandezhuanmenweiyuanhui,keyigenjufayuandeshenjilaizuzhixiangyingdetuijuweiyuanhui,gaiweiyuanhuidechengyuanyingyoutongjidedangzuzhiweipaiderenyuan、tongjirenmindaibiaodahuiweipaiderenyuan、tongjirenminfayuanyuanzhang、lvshixiehui、qunzhongdaibiaodengzucheng,guangfankaochahouxuanrenyuandegefangmiansuzhi,tichuzuizhongdehouxuanmingdan,ranhoujiaoxiangguanrenyuan、zuzhihuojigou,jingguojinyibudikaocha,toupiaojueding。yicidulidetuijuchengxuquebaofaguandehouxuanzige,jinyibuyanbafaguanjinrufayuandequdao。

    tongshi,bizherenweikeyixuanyongxinlixuezipingliangbiaoweishouduan,duichurenfaguanderenyuanjinxingxinlipinzhi、xinlikangyali、goutongdayinengli、rengeyizhidengfangmianjinxingquanfangmiandeceshi。tongguosds、sas、scl-90、les、epq、aikesenqingxuwendingxingceyan、shehuigongnengquexianshaixuanliangbiao、uclaguduliangbiaodengdexinlixueliangbiao,duichurenfaguanderengeleixing、jiaolvdu、yiyudu、richangshenghuonengli、qingxuwendingxing、shehuigongnengwanshanxing、gudugandiyudengfangmian,jinxingquanfangweidehengliangheshaixuan。lizhengmeiyiweichurenfaguanderengeqizhi、xinlizizhidoujingdeqifaguanrichanggongzuodekaoyan。

幸运28官网    lingwai,xingyun28guanwangguoxianxingde《faguanfa》suiranguidinglefaguanderenzhitiaojian,danduiruhejinrufayuanguidingjiaoweihanhu,weilequebaozhenzhengdejingyingrencaidanrenfaguan,haixuyoujutidekexingxingguiding。muqianguojishangtongxingdefangfashikaoshihekaohe,kaoshizhenduizhuanyexueshihelilunshuiping,erkaohezekaochaqipinxingheshijiduanannengli,liangxiangjiehe,xuanchugaoshuizhundefaguan。dangran,zhenduibutongdexuqiu,kaoshihekaohexuanbachudefaguanrenxuanyeyingjuyoubutongdetezheng,rumianxiangzuigaofayuandefaguan、gaojifayuandefaguan、zhongjifayuandefaguanhejicengfayuandefaguansuojinxingdekaoshihekaohe,qizhongdianhexuanzeduixiangdouhuiyoubutong,danshibuyiduicankaoduixiangdefanweizuoguoduodexianzhi,yiqiuzaigengdafanweineixuanbagaosuzhidefaguan。

幸运28官网    bizherenwei,shouxian,kaoshiyingyoudulide、zhuanmendekaoshijigoutongyizuzhi,qici,jigoudehexinbumenyingyoufalvzhuanyerenshiruzhuanyeyanjiurenyuanhuoshenpanjingyanfengfuderenyuanzucheng,yibianduikaoshiduixiangjinxingyoudefangshidikaocha。tongshi,kaoshideneirongyingyouzhuanjiazuyiding,bingqieyingliqiuduicankaozhedezhuanyezhishi、xiangguanzhishi、zhuanyejinengyijishijiansuoxudeqitajinengruyingbiannengli、yuyanbiaodanenglidengjinxingquanmiandikaocha,yibaozhangkaoshizhiliang。zuihou,suoyoukaoshengdekaoshihekaohejieguodouyinggongkai,zuodaotouminghegongzheng,jieshoujiandu,congeryeyouliyugaijinxingyun28guanwangguodesifajiaoxuehesifashijian。

幸运28官网    lingwai,kaolvcongyoufengshuodefalvyanjiuchengguodejiaoshouxuezhezhongxuanrenfaguan,huoshiconglvshiduiwuzhongtiaoxuan,yejuyoushijiankexingxing。xingyun28guanwangguoshishidelvshi、faguan、jianchaguan“sankaoheyi”desifakaoshizhidu,youcibaozhenglefalvgongzuozhedeyewusuyang。zaixindesifagaigeguochengzhong,yingjinyibuchangtonglvshi、gaoxiaojiaoshijinrufaguanduiwudequdao,shixianzhiyezhijiandehutongxing,gongtongfahuisifazuoyong。

幸运28官网    (er)wanshanfaguandejiaoyupeixunzhidu

    suizhefazhiyishidetigao,renmenduifalvdejingshenyijifalvdejiazhiyoulexindegengshenruderenshi,zaishijiefanweineixianqileyilunsifagaigedegaochao,ribenshiqizhongjiaoweichenggongdeyili,tasuochangdaode“kejiaoxingguo”delinianshenruleribenshehuidemeigejiaoluo,faxuejiaoyugengshishouyifeiqian,qijianlizaisuzhijiaoyuhezhiyejiaoyumingquefengongjichushangdefalvzhiyerencaipeiyangjiaoyuzhiduduixingyun28guanwangguoyouzhehenshendeqifa。xingyun28guanwangguodedaxuejiaoyucezhongyuduizhuanyerencaidepeiyang,jisuowei“youhongyouzhuan”,zouchudaxuexiaomendexueshengmendaduoduishubenzhishijiaoweishuxi,shijidongshounenglijiaocha,yichengweibuzhengdeshishi,suoyigangjinrufayuandedaxueshengpubianhuichanshengshoucuogan,xiangbizhixia,ribendesifayanxiuzhiduzekeyijiejian,yitigaoshenpanrenyuandeshijigongzuonengli,jinertigaosifaxiaolv。duici,bizherenwei,duixingyun28guanwangguosifarenyuandepeixunyingxiangyingdiyougangqianjiaoyupeixunhegongzuoguochengzhongdejixujiaoyupeixunliangbufenzucheng。suoweigangqianjiaoyupeixun,jishizaizhenggefalvzhuanyezhishixuexiguochengzhongwanchengde。zhenggejiaoyuguochengyeyingyou“zhuan”shidangdixiang“bo”qingxie,yishixueshengzaixiaoxuexiqijianjiuduizhuruzhexue、lunlixue、shehuixue、luojixuedengxuekezhishiyoujibendelejie,bingyangchengkexuedesiweifangshihelianghaodexuexixiguan、xuexifangfa,zheiyangbujinnengtigaoxueshengduifaxuezhuanyedejiayunengli,tongshiyezengqianglebutongxuekezhijiandekerongxing,congerzaijinhoudezhiyexuanzeguochengzhongyougengqiangdejingzhenglihezhudongxing。zhiyuzhuanyepeixun,zeyaoqiuyouhenqiangdezhenduixing,zheiyefuhexingyun28guanwangguomuqiansuochangdaodexuexiaojiaoyuyingyushehuixuqiujiegui。bizhekaolvshifounengjiangxianyoudexuexishijianshidangyanzhang。faxueyuyixueyouxiangsizhichu,douxuyao“zhenduan”he“kaiyaofang”,weiyidequbiejiushimianduidebingzhengbutongeryi,yinci,faxuezhuanyedexueshengjieshouzhuanyejiaoyuhepeixundeshijiansihumeiyouliyoubiyixueyuandexueshengduan,congmuqiandexianshilaikan,qiaqiashigangqiandezhiyeduanlianshijianjiaoduan,yiner,ribendexueshengdiyicisifakaoshitongguohouweiqijinliangniandeshixijiujiaoweihelile,erqiehaiyouzhuanmendejigoufuzeanpai,zheizaiguojishangyeshishaojiande,zuyijianderibenduifalvzhiyedezhongshi,qirencaide“jingyinghua”yeshigongrende。xingyun28guanwangguodesifajiaoyuqibujiaowan,gengyingjiadalidu、jiadatouru,youguojiachumianyouzhuanmendezuzhifuzeduiyouzhijinrusifabumenderenyuanjinxingzhiyepeixun,yitigaofalvzhiyecongyerenyuandesuzhi。ciwai,duifaguanzaizhiguochengzhongjinxingjiaoyupeixunyezhiguanzhongyao,zheishizhenduishehuidefazhaneryande。jiufadefeichu、xinfadebanbu、falvguanniandepeiyang、falvjinengdetigao,douhuishide“tianshengbaoshou”defaguanbuduandichanshengzhiye“weijigan”,canjiazhiyezaijiaoyushibukebimiande。yinci,xingyun28guanwangguoyingjianlizhuanmendefaguanjixujiaoyujigou,rumuqianyiyoudefaguanxueyuan,tongshihaiyaoyouzhuanxiangzijinjiyuzhichi,yimianfaguanpeixunliuyuxingshi。

    (san)wanshanfaguandebaozhangzhidu

    weilejiejuefaguandehouguzhiyou,zhenzhengshixiansifaduliyijitigaosifazhiliang,duifaguantigongbixudezhidubaozhang,yeshixingyun28guanwangguoxiandaifaguanzhidudezhongyaoneirong。

幸运28官网    1、shixingfaguanderenzhibaozhangzhidu。

幸运28官网    duifaguanrenzhidebaozhang,xianranyouliyufaguanzaizhiqijianrenzhenlvxingzijidezhize,shixianduifalvdezhongcheng。xiangbixifangshehuidaduoshixingdezhiwuzhongshenzhi,zheidangrankezuoweixingyun28guanwangguosifaxingyun28guanwang、faguanzhiduxingyun28guanwangdeyigezuizhongdenulifangxiang。danjiumuqianxingyun28guanwangguodeshijiguoqingeryan,bizherenweibuyijiyushixing。yinwei:shouxian,muqianxingyun28guanwangguofaguandesuzhihaimeiyoudadaoxiandaifaguanyingyoudechengdu,shixingfaguanderenzhizhongshenzhi,qiaqiashiduixianzhuangdefuyan,shenzhikeyishuoshiduixianzhuangdechengrenherongren,xingyun28guanwangguofaguansuzhidetigaojiugengjia“renzhongerdaoyuan”le;qici,xingyun28guanwangguomuqianzhengzaijiadalidutigaofaguandesuzhi,tongguogezhongcuoshixinagengduode“jingying”rencaijinrusifaxitong,sifaxitongbenshenyezaijiajinshishi“youshenglietai”,jiasujinghuafayuanneibuderenwenhuanjing,cishishishifaguanrenzhidezhongshenzhi,wuyiqieduanlerencailiudongdequdao,buliyuxingyun28guanwangguosifarenyuandegengxin;zaici,yinweixingyun28guanwangguosifaxingyun28guanwangbufadebuduanjiakuai,xuyaogengduode“xinxianxueye”,shixianxinlaogengti,zhongshenrenzhibuliyunianqingrenfazhandebiduankenenghuizaixingyun28guanwangguobiaoxiandegengweituchu;zuihou,zaixingyun28guanwangguosifaxitongdedulishangweishixianshi,xianxingshishifaguanrenzhidezhongshenzhi,yehuishiyuanyoubaoshoudexingzhenghuatizhixiayiliudelishiwentidebudaojiejue,jideliyiquntihaihuijixucunzai,zheizhongzhuangkuangxiashixingzhongshenzhi,dedaobaohudekongpabushi“jingyingdefaguan”。danbushixingzhongshenrenyong,budengyubuduifaguanderenzhijiyubaozhang,xingyun28guanwangguoxianxingdefaguanyuanezhigaigebianshizhenduiyishangwentisuozuodeyicichangshi,tongguoduifaguandeyeji、nenglihejieanqingkuangjinxingkaohe,duihegezhekeyiyanzhangqirenzhiqixian,siyiquxiaoyifaduanandefaguandezige,erbuhegezhezejinxingtaotai、tuichuyuane,qimubiaobianshiyicicigaigeweiqiji,zaixingyun28guanwangguojianliqiyizhinianqingde、chongmanhuolidezhuanyehuafaguanduiwu。

    2、shixingfaguandexinjinbaozhangzhidu。

幸运28官网    shouxian,shiyaoshixianfaguandegaoxin。faguandegaoxin,duiyutigaofaguanzhiyedediwei,shulifaguandequanweiyijizengqiangfaguanduizhiyedexinxinhereqing,yiyishishifenzhongdade,zaixingyun28guanwangguo,gengyoushijiyiyi,youqiyouliyudui“jingyingrencai”deyinjin。dangran,xingyun28guanwangguofaguantigaodaiyuyaoyujingjianfaguanduiwu、tigaofaguansuzhidenggongzuogongtongjinxing,yinweiyifangmianxingyun28guanwangguodejingjishilihaiyuanweinengshixingyun28guanwangguofaguandedaiyuganshangfadaguojiadefaguan,faguanduiwudepangdagengjiadalenandu,suoyi,suojianfaguandeshuliangbushiweiyizhongjiejuefangfa;lingyifangmian,faguanzhiyegengduoxuyaodeshiduizhiyedezhongcheng、duifalvdexinyang,xinshuidetigaoguranzhongyao,danxinjinbijingshiyouxiande,gengwufagaibiangerenpinxingshangcunzaidequexian,yingguoneixie“weidadewuxinzhe”tongyangweisifalishizuochulejudadegongxian。suoyi,faguandiweidebaozhangshiyixiangxitonggongcheng,xuyaoneiwaiduozhongyinsudegongtongzuoyong。qici,haiyaobaozhangfaguanzaizhiqijiandexinjinbuyingjianshao,yibaochifaguanduizhiyedeanquangan,kexiangerzhi,jishishizaiguojiajingjifashengbiandongdeqingkuangxia,faguandexinjinyebudejianshaodeguidinghuidadatigaofaguanzhiyedeshengwanghejingjibaozhang。

幸运28官网    3、shixingfaguandetuixiubaozhangzhidu。

幸运28官网    guidingfaguandaoshidangdenianlingtuixiu,youliyufaguanduiwuyongbaohuoli,yingguodefaguanquntimuqiancunzaizhefaguannianlingpiangaodewentibingchengweisifagaigededuixiangzhiyi,yiner,xiquqijingyan,xingyun28guanwangguoyeyingduinianlingjiaodadefaguanshixingtuixiu,dantongshiyingbaozhangtuixiuhoudefaguanrengkededaoyouhoudetuixiujin,yibaozhengfaguanzairenzhiqijiannengkejinzhishou、qingzhenglianjie。danduixingyun28guanwangguomuqianguidingdefaguantuixiunianling,bizherenweikeyijutidijiayifenxi,faguandezhiyeshengyatongshiyeshijingyan、renpinhexueshibuduanjileideguocheng,“jingying”rencaibujinjinshizhinianqingdefaguan,duiyujingyanfengfu、decaijianbeierqiejingliyoujiaoweichongpeidefaguandangrankeyiliuyong,zheiyeshiduixingyun28guanwangguozhangqiyilaishixingdetuixiunianling“yidaoqie”zhengcedetupo。

    4、shixingfaguandeanquanbaozhangzhidu。

幸运28官网    renshenanquanduirenherenlaishuodoushidiyiweide,shengcunquanyeshirenquanzhongzuijibendeyixiangquanli,faguangaozuozaifaguanxishangweiweihutarendequanyiernuli,tazishendequanliyeyingdedaobaozhang。zuoweifalvdebaohushen,ruguofaguanlianzishendejibenquanlidouwufabaozhang,zheibunengbushuoshijidadefengci,falvdezunyanyejiudangranwucunle。xingyun28guanwangguodesifashijianzhongbufafaguanbeidangtingzhize、rumashenzhioudadexianxiang,zheibujinshiduifaguandewushi,gengzhongyaodeshiduifalvdeqingshi,buyingfashengzairenheyigexiandaifazhihuaguojiali。suoyi,xingyun28guanwangguoyingjiyufaguanzhongshendeanquanbaozhang,yitigaofaguanduizhiyederentongganheguishugan,congershixianfaguanzhifucongfalv、duliduanandelixiang。

    wu、jieyu

幸运28官网    xingyun28guanwangguojiangfaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangzuoweiyifazhiguoguolvedezhongyaozuchengbufen,zaishenfenzhiyehuafangmianyezuochuledaliangdechangshi,jinxingledadandegaige,danfaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangshiyigexitongdegongcheng,baokuolexuanren、peixun、baozhang、chengjiedengdengjuticengmiandeyunzuo,zheixuyaozaigaigezhongbuduanzongjiejingyan,youhuafazhitixi,cainengzhenzhengxingyun28guanwangyizhiguifanhua、zhuanyehua、zhiyehuadefaguanduiwu。

    cankaowenxian

    【1】zuigaorenminfayuan《guanyujiaqiangfaguanduiwuzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangderuoganyijian》,2002nian8yuebanbushishi。

幸运28官网    【2】zhongguosifashenpanluntan.falvchubanshe。

    【3】renming、jiangjiye、luyunyun.fayuanduiwuxingyun28guanwangdebiyouzhilu: faguanzhiyehua---quanguofayuanfaguanzhiyehuaxingyun28guanwangyuanzhangluntanzongshu。

    【4】songbing.meiguoyudeguodesifazhidujisifachengxu,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe。

    【5】〔ri〕damuyafu.bijiaofa,falvchubanshe。

    【6】〔de〕ciweigetedeng.bijiaofazonglun,guizhourenminchubanshe。

    【7】lengluosheng.ribenxiandaishenpanzhidu,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe。

幸运28官网    【8】dingxiangshun:《ribensifakaoshizhidudejibenlinianyuzhuyaotedian》,zai《falvkexue》。

幸运28官网  

幸运28官网zerenbianji: yanjiushi    

wenzhangchuchu: xinleshirenminfayuanbaosong    


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