幸运28官网

当前位置: 法学思想 -> 审判研究

从“案结了事”到“案结事了”: 刑事和解扩大适用的必要性和可行性(2017.3)

——基于污染环境案件审理实践的需求    

  发布时间: 2019-04-30 08:04:19


 

幸运28官网                  qiaoxiqurenminfayuan   wangli

   lunwentiyao: wuranhuanjinganjianbingbuzaixingshihejiefanweinei,danshigaileianjiandeshenpanyouyouqiteshuxing,xianshiqingkuangweishenpangongzuotichugenggaodeyaoqiu,muqiansifashijianbingweigoujianfangzhishengtaiehuadeyouxiaopingzhang。2016nian,lianggaosanbuyinfale《guanyuzaibufendiqukaizhanxingshianjianrenzuirenfacongkuanzhidushidiangongzuodebanfa》,lilunshangjiangsuoyouanjianjunkeshiyongrenzuirenfazhidu。dandiqitiaoguidinglebeigaorenshifouyubeihairendachenghejiexieyihuozhequdebeihairendeliangjie,jiangzuoweiliangxingdezhongyaoyinsu。yinci,nengfoudachengxingshihejiezhijieguanshedaobeigaorenrenzuirenfazuizhongdecongqingfuduyijipanjuejieguo。

    benwencongshizhengzhuyijiaoduchufa,yiwuranwentiyanzhongdehuanbohaiwushengshiduiwuranhuanjinganjiandeshenlishijianweishijiao,duixianshizhongcunzaideruhebian“anjieleshi”wei“anjieshile”,ruhegenghaodifahuixingshishenpangongzuodechengzhiheyufangfanzuimude,zenyangnenggouniuzhuananjianshenlihouwuranhouguorengrancunzaidegangajumiandengwentijinxingfenxi。wenzhangdiyibufentoushishenlishijianfaxianwenti;dierbufentongguoliangzhongfenxitantaoyunyongxingshihejiejilibeigaorenchengdanzhiliwurandezerenbiyaoxing;disanbufenzhenduishiyongxingshihejiekenengcunzaidewentiyijiqitadifangdeshijiantansuolunzhengxingshihejiedekexingxing。

    

幸运28官网    zuimeidezhidubushichuangzaochulaide,ershijinhuaerlai。

    ——[mei]molisi

    

    yinyan

    “renfeishengxianshunengwuguo”,conggudaidebaoguzhidudaoxianzaidexingshihejie,xingshisifaguochengwubutixiankuanyoudejingshen,xingshihejieqihelehuifuxingsifalinian,chengweizuijinsifalingyubeishouguanzhudejiaodian。zaizongjiexingyun28guanwangguozhangqidesifashijianjingyanhejiejianqitaguojiahediqusifaliniandejichushang,2012nian《xingshisusongfa》zhuanzhangguidinglexingshihejiezhidu。zhengruhenduoxuezhepinglundeneiyang,xingshihejieyouhenduobujinruyidedifang,danshitabijingjixingyun28guanwangdakaileyishan“falvzhimen”,weimaodunjiejuededuoyanghuadiandingleguifanjichu,guofendekeqiuhezhizemeiyourenhexianshiyiyi,ruhezaibuduandiwanshanbingzhidaosifashijian,yixingchengjuyouzhongguotesedexingshihejiezhiducaishifalvrenshiyexiajidaitantaodewenti。congyanjiufanweilaishuo,keyicongduogejiaoduduixingshihejiedewanshanjinxingshendutantao。danshi,jiyuhuanjingfanzuisifashijianzhongfaxiandewenti,bizhenilizuyuhuanjingwentizuituchudehuanbohaidiqu,yiwuranhuanjingzuiweishijiao,zaishizhengfenxidejichushang,tichuxingshihejiekuodashiyongdexianshixuqiu,tantaogengweikexueyouxiaodechufajizhi。

幸运28官网    xianxiangsaomiao: gedishenpanjiguanshenlishijiandekunjing

   chuyuzhulibenneng,wuranhuanjingzheliyong“maibaicai”dechengbenhuodele“maibaifen”delirun,zaochengyixishenghuanjinghuanqulirun,yixishengweilaieryingdedangxiadehouguo。suizheguojiabuduanjiadaduiwuranhuanjingzuidechufalidu,wuranhuanjingxingshianjianchengxianchuduofaxing、fuzaxingdetaishi,xingshishenpansuirannenggoukuaisuchuliyidapiwuranhuanjingzhe,danwuranxianzhuangyirancunzai,pohuaihuanjingxingweiyijiubuduanfasheng,chuantongshenpanmoshixianxianchu“zhibiaobuzhiben”dejuxianxing。yiner,xuyaoxingyun28guanwangfansisifashijian,faxianwentibingtansuochuxinchulu。

   近几年,最高人民法院一直要求各地法院贯彻司法公开,以大数据指导审判实践,各地法院也将裁判文书上网率作为重要考核指标。故笔者从最高人民法院主办单位:台湾宾果28

    suiranjiadaduiwuranhuanjinganjiandechulilidushihuanbohaigeshengshidezongtiqushi,dantongguobijiao,gedidesifazhengceheshijianyousuobutong,bizhegenjutongjidejieguozhizuoleyixiatubiao:

    tuyi 2016nianhuanbohai5shengshiwuranhuanjingzuibeigaoren(ziranren)beipanchuxingfafenxitu

youqituxingqujian(danwei: nian)

diqu jinanshi tianjinshi shanxisheng liaoningsheng shijiazhuangshi

(0-1) 3ren 11ren 2ren 14ren 33ren

[1-1.5) 2ren 6ren 1ren 8ren 13ren

幸运28官网[1.5-2) 5ren 2ren 0ren 6ren 7ren

[2-3] 1ren 0ren 4ren 7ren 0ren

youqituxingjunzhi 13.5geyue 10.1geyue 18.4geyue 15.2geyue 10.5geyue

tuer 2016nianhuanbohai5shengshihuanjingwuranbeigaorenbeipanchuyouqituxingqujianfenbutu(hanhuanxing)

    duisuoxuanqudedifangheshujudejieshao:

幸运28官网    diyi、huanbohai7shengshizhongshandongshenghehebeishengshenlidewuranhuanjinganjianzuiduo,2016nianquannianliangshengsifajiguanzuochudepanjueshujundadao200jianyishang,guzhixuanqulezuoweidaibiaodeliangshengshenghuichengshizuoweitongjiduixiang。

幸运28官网    dier、beijing、neimengliangdi2016nianshangwangdepanjuewenshudouzai5jianyixia,gumeiyoulieweitongjiduixiang。

幸运28官网    disan、zaitongjiguochengzhongbizhejiangsuoyoudeziranrenbeigaorenanzhaobeipanchuxingfadezhongleijinxingguileifenxi。danweifanzuigongjiliujian,tongjifajinxing。

    tongguoduiyishangsuolieshengshidewuranhuanjingzuishenlijieguofenxikeyidechuyixiajielun:

    yishiwushengshideshenpanjiguanduiwuranhuanjingzuideshenlijieguodazhifenweiliangzhongmoshi: yishijiazhuangshiweidaibiaodehebeishengduiwuranhuanjinganjianpanjueyishixingweizhu。yi2016nianweili,gaishigongdui67mingbeigaorenzuochupanjue(chucizhiwaihaiyouyiqianjianjianchajiguanchesu),jinyou3renbeipanchuhuanxing,huanxinglvjinwei4.48%。erqitashengshihuanxingshiyonglvzejiaogao,shaodeshengfenliaoningshengwei40.9%,duodeshengfenshanxishengwei91.67%。[(1) yinyaobaozhenggeditongjishujudetongyixing,guzhinengxuanqu2016nianshanxishengshenpanjiguanzuochudepanjue。weilefangzhiyangbenjiaoshaodaozhijieguobukeguan,bizheyoujiangcaipanwenshuwangshangsuoyoushanxishengpanjuejinxingtongji。quchudanchufajinde5ren,gongji23renbeipanchujuyihuozheyouqituxing,qizhong18renbeipanchuhuanxing,huanxinglvwei78.26%。](1)

幸运28官网    ershibeipanchuyouqituxingdebeigaorendaduojizhongzai1nianyixiayouqituxingfanweinei,zuiduodedadao62.3%(shijiazhuangshi)。henshaoyoupanchu2nianyishangyouqituxing,meiyoubeipanchu3nianyishangyouqituxingdebeigaoren。qizhongtianjinshiheshijiazhuangshiduibeigaorenxuangaodexingqijunzai2nianyixiayouqituxinghuozhejuyi。

幸运28官网    sanshigeshengshizailiangxingshidechajubijiaoda。bizhejiangsousuodeshangshugeshengshianjianzhongbeigaorendexingqijinxingxiangjia,zaichuyibeigaorenrenshu,jingguojisuan,5shengshianjianzhongbeigaorendeyouqituxingjunzhizai10.1geyuezhi18.4geyuezhijian,xiangchale8geduoyue。

幸运28官网    sishi5shengshishenpanjiguanduiwuranhuanjingfanzuijibenshangpanchuziyouxinghefajin,jishaoshufayuanduibeixuangaohuanxingdebeigaorenpanchulejinzhiling。

    er、liangzhongjiedu: xingshihejiezaiwuranhuanjinganjianzhongshiyongdebiyaoxing

    tanjiuyixiangzhidushiyongbiyaoxingdeqiantishixianyoudesifashijianhuozhesifalinianyijingbunengshiyingshehuifazhandexuqiuhuozhebunengjiaohaodejiejuexianshiwenti。tongguoyishangshizhengfenxikeyifaxianmuqiangedisifashijiancunzaixuduowenti,zheixiewentishicuishengbiangede“yuandongli”。xiamianxianduisifashijianzhongdewentijinxingpouxi,ranhouzaitantaoxingshihejieshiyongdebiyaoxing。

    genjutubiaoyifenxi,wuranhuanjingfanzuishenlijieguode“liangjifenhua”,suoweishenlijieguode“liangjifenhua”shizhi,huanbohaiwushengshiduiwuranhuanjinganjianshenlichuxianleyaomejiadashixingdeshiyonglv,yiqizengqiangduifanzuifenzidechengzhiliduyijiduiqianzaidewuranhuanjingzhedeweisheli;yaomeduoshiyonghuanxing,yiqishixianliyongfajinxingduibeigaorendechengjie。conglilunshangjiang,zheiliangzhongfangshikansidoujuyouyidingdehelixing,danshijingguozixidetuiqiao,shijianzhongsuochengxiandejieguojunchuxianleyihua。

    (yi)huanxingpeihefajinshixianlechengzhimudelema

    zhixingcengmian: huanxingquefajiandu、xiaoguobujia

    xingyun28guanwangguoxingfadi72tiaozhi77tiaoduihuanxingzuochulexiangguanguiding,huanxingzhishizaipanchuxingfashishedingyigekaoyanqi,zaikaoyanqimanhou,beigaorenruguomeiyouzaifanzui、meiyoubeifaxianyoulouzuibingqiemeiyouweifanfalv、xingzhengfaguihuozheguowuyuanyouguanxingzhengbumenguanyuhuanxingdejianduguanliguidingdengqingkuang,yuanpanxingfajiubuzaizhixing,yejiushimeiyouzhixing,yincizaifanzuishiyebushuyuleifan。danyuzhiduiyingdeshixingyun28guanwangguodeshequjiaozhengzhidurengzaibuduanwanshanzhong,youyujiaozhengrenyuanyouxian、jiaozhengfangshifangfahaiyoudaijinyibutigao,yincishijianzhongxiangguanxingzhengjiguanhenkenengduibeigaorencaiqubuleyouxiaodejiaozhengcuoshi,fanzuirenyebuhuizhudongquxiufuhuanjing,shequjiaozhengdezhenzhengxiaoguonanyixianxian。

幸运28官网    xianshicengmian: wuranhuanjinganjianrengzaigaoweizhuangtai

幸运28官网    zi1998niandao2016nian10yuefen,shenpanjiguanshiyongxingfadi338tiao(baohanzhongdahuanjingwuranshiguzuizainei)shenjiedeanjianshucong1weishumaixiang4weishu。youqishi2013niansifajieshichutaihou,shuliangjizeng。[(2) yuhaisong: 《huanjingziyuanfanzuishiwujingjie》,falvchubanshe2017nianban,di29ye。](2)

    

幸运28官网tusan quanguowuranhuanjingxingshianjianzengzhangbianhuatu

幸运28官网    2016nianzuigaorenminfayuan、zuigaorenminjianchayuanxinxiudingle《guanyubanlihuanjingwuranxingshianjianshiyongfalvruoganwentidejieshi》,jinyibukuodaleruzuitiaojian,keyiyujiandeshijinhougedidewuranhuanjinganjianduanshiqineibuhuimingxianjianshao。wuranhuanjingxingweishiyizhongjiaoweiteshudefanzui,yuqitafanzuixingweixiangbi,qiyibanmeiyoutedingdeshouhairen。anzhaoxuezhedeguandian,wuranhuanjingfanzuiqinfandefayishishengtaifayi,“shengtaifayishifalvjizhibiaodahuoshixiandebaokuorenzaineidegezhongshengtaizhutiduishengtaiyaosujishengtaixitongdeliyixuqiu”。[(3) jiaoyanpeng: 《xingfashengtaifayilun》,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe2012nianban,di57ye。](3)zhengyinweiwuranxingweimeiyouduijutigerenliyideqinhai,jiazhiwuranxingweijiaoweiyinmi,wuranjieguohewuranxingweizhijianyouyidingdejiange,xianshizhongwangwangchuxian“guanbuguan,minbujiu”deliangnanjingdi,zaochengbeigaorenmoshifalv,daozhiwuranhuanjingxingweiyizaichuxian,anjianjizengdexianshichengweihuanxingshiyonglvyidatiaozhan。

    shishicengmian: fajinxingdechufaliduweihuqiwei

    yizhiguandejiaodulijie,shiyonghuanxingjiafajinxingdemudeshijiyubeigaorenyijiqitarenmingquedesifazhiyin——fajindejiaonashuejiangdadachaoguotongguofanzuishixiandelirunjiazhi。danshi,“lixianghenfengman,xianshihengugan”。xingyun28guanwangtongguoyixiatubiaojiukeyikanchuduanni:

    

    tubiaosi sishengshifajinqujiantu

   genjushangbiaokezhi,panchuhuanxingjiaoduodeshengshizuizhongduibeigaorenpanchudefajinqujianzhanbizuiduodewei1wanyuanyixia(chuliaoningshengyiwai),3wanyuanyixiasuozhandebilidadao80%zuoyou。xiangbijiaoqitaputongfanzuieryan,zheixiefajinyeshixiangduijiaoshaode,zheixieweibuzudaodefajin,duiyugerenwufashixianyufanghechengzhifanzuidemude,erzhilibeipohuaidehuanjingsuoxudezijinyijibeigaorendefanzuishouyiyuanyuanbifajinyaoduo。suoyishishishang,fajinxingbingmeiyouxingyun28guanwangxiangxiangdeneiyangfahuileqiyingyoudexiaoli。

幸运28官网    (er)panchushixingzhendeyidingnenggouzengqiangweishelima

幸运28官网   yishijiazhuangshiweidaibiaodehebeishengshuyuxingyun28guanwangguowuranzuiweiyanzhongdediquzhiyi,meiniandongjipm2.5paimingqianshidechengshizhong,hebeishengzhanxiangdangdadebili,zheiyejiubunanlijiehebeishengzhilihuanjingwuranrenwudejianjuxing。guliyongduibeigaorenpanchushixinglaijingshisuoyouwuranhuanjingzhedezuofayezaiqinglizhizhong,danshishixiaoguoni?hebeifayuan2010nianshoulizhongdahuanjingwuranshiguzui0jian,2011nianwuranhuanjingzuishouli2jian3ren,2012nianshouli1jian3ren,2013nianshouli13jian16ren,2014nianshouli186jian329ren。[(4) chenqingrui: 《wuranhuanjingzuifalvshiyongderuoganwenti》,zai《hebeigonganjingchazhiyexueyuanxuebao》2015niandi4qi,di47ye。](4)zheixieshujuyifangmianbiaomingle2013nianzuigaorenminfayuan、zuigaorenminjianchayuanbanbuguanyubanlihuanjingwurananjiandesifajieshihou,duihuanwuranjinganjiansuoshejidezhuanmenxingwentiruhechulijiyuxiangxidezhiyin,sifarenyuanzaifanzuixingweirendingshanggengjiarongyicaozuo,wuranhuanjinganjiandaliangzengjia。danlingyifangmianyezhengmingleshehuishangcunzaidaliangdewuranhuanjingxingwei,erqieyishangshujujinjinshiyibeifaxianbingchufafanzuixingwei。wuranhuanjingzuihuanxingshiyonglvdishishijiazhuangshideyidatedian,wulunyuqitaleixingdefanzuixiangbihaishihetongqiquanguofayuanhuanxingshiyonglvbi,4.48%dehuanxinglvjueduishihendide。yangeshiyonghuanxingkansibiqitadiqupanchudexingfagengzhong,dangenjutongjideshuju,beipanchuyouqituxingyou53ren(baohanlehuanxing2renzainei,junweipanchuyouqituxingyinian,huanxingyinianliugeyue),qizhongxingqidiyuyinianyouqituxingde33ren,beipanchu6geyueyixiadejuyiwei14ren(baohanhuanxing1renzainei),yejibeipanchushixingde64renzhongyou46renbeipanchulediyuyiniandexingqi,suozhanbilidadao71.88%。yuqita4shengshixiangbi,wulunanxingqidepingjunzhihaishianzhaobeipanchuyinianyixiaxingqidebililaipinggu,shijiazhuangshideshenpanjiguanduibeigaorenpanchuxingqidoubusuangao。tongguoduibifaxiangeshengshidewuranhuanjinganjianjizhongzaitoupaitoufangfeishuishang,feishuizhongyibandouhanyouduirendeshengminghejiankangweihaijidazhongjinshuheleijinshu,yidanpaifangdaoshuitiheturangzhonghennanjinxingchuli,yehennantongguohuanjingzijingnenglilaixiaochu。jinguanbunengyongkexuedegongshilaijisuanwuranhuanjinghuibiqitaleixingfanzuiweihaihouguoyanzhongduoshao,danzhiguandetihuishixingyun28guanwangshengcunhuanjingrengyouehuadeweixian。yinciduiwuranhuanjingzhepanchujigeyuedexingqi(shixing),tongshibingchuyouxiandefajin,[(5) jiyu“panlebufa,falebupan”decuowusiwei,shijianzhongbeipanchushixingdebeigaorenjibenshangdoubuhuizhudongjiaonafajin。](5)yubeigaorendexingweihouguoyijihuodehuibaoxiangbibuchengbili,gengnanshuofahuilexingfaweisheli。

幸运28官网    tongguoyishangfenxi,xingyun28guanwangfaxianhuanbohaiwushengshishenlihuanjingwurananjianwulunzhongshixinghaishizhongfajin,qixingfaqiangdudouxiangduijiaodi,junmeiyoushixiansifadezhongjimude——yufangfanzuihehuifuhuanjing——erzheyouxianghugoulian、huyouyingxiang。youqishihuifubeipohuaidehuanjingzuiweizhongyao,genju“pochuangxiaoying”,[(6) gaililunyouzhanmushi▪weierxunheqiaozhi▪kailintichu,qirenweihuanjingzhongdebuliangxianxiangruguobeifangrencunzai,huiyoushirenmenxiaofang,shenzhibianbenjiali。fanyingzaihuanjingwuranshang,duipohuaidehuanjingjuebunengzhizhibuli,fouzewuranxianzhuangzhihuiyuelaiyuehuai。](6)yidanbeipohuaidehuanjingwurenwenjin,wangwanghuiyinfagengduoderenzhengxiangxiaofang,bijingwuranhuanjingfanzuideyuqishouyijiangchaoguoyuqichengben。yeyourentichuyinggaijiadaduiwuranhuanjingzhedechufalidu,panchugenggaodexingqi,duifanzuifenziyigengqiangliedeweisheli。bizherenwei,zongtishangkanxingfaduiwuranhuanjingzuidexingqipeizhiqingkuanghaishijibenheshide,jinguangedipanchudexingqizongtipiandi,yeyouyidingdechaju,danzheishisifajishucaozuoyijirendingwentibingfeilifayuanyin。erqie,yanlidexingfahaijiangmianlinlingwaiyigewenti——bianjiweisheli。yidanbufenqingkuang、bukaolvjutiguoqingdishiyongyanlixingfa,henkenengdaozhigengweiyanzhongdewuranhuanjingxingweihuozhegengduodepohuaihuanjingzhe。

    2016nianqueliderenzuirenfazhidutixianle“kongbianxieshang”dejingshen,zaishenpanjiguankuaisushenlianjianyijiduibeigaorencongqingchufafangmianzuolejijidechangshi,gaizhidumaosiweiwuranhuanjingshenlidegangajumiankaipileyitiaodaolu,danyoulianggewentibudebukaolv: yishigaizhidubenshenchuyushidianqibuqi,jiujingnenggouduibeigaorencongqingduoshao,lianggaosanbudeguidingzhongmeiyoumingque,gedirengzaitansuozhong;ershirenzuirenfazhiduzhongguidingcongqingchufadedezhongyaocankaoqingjieshibeihairendehejiehuozheliangjie。yinci,xingshihejierengranshijiyuwuranhuanjingzhecongqingchufayijiliqichengdanzhiwuyiwudezhongyaoyinsu。weileyouxiaodezhicaifanzui,bixushejiyitaozuijiaxingshizhicaifangan,gaijianlizaimouyimoxingjichushang——youyufanzui,duizuifandeyuqichengbenjiangchaoguoyuqishouyi。[(7) bosinazaiqi《falvdejingjifenxi》zhongtichu,zaikaolvbianjiweishelilideqiantixia,xingshizhicaiyinggaishefazuodaoshizuifanyouyushishifanzuixingweierchujinggengweiehua。congjingjixuedejiaodukan,yinggaigulishiyongfajinerfeituxing,yuanyinshituxingdeshehuichengbenyaogaoyucongyouchangfunenglidebeigaochuzhengshoufajindeshehuichengben。yinci,jiehedaowuranhuanjinganjianzhong,yibaohuhuanjingweimudebubirandaozhidaliangshiyongtuxing,shiyongjiaoqiangdefajinxinghuozhebeigaorenzixingxiufuhuanjinggengfuhesifamubiao,meigebeigaorenjiyuqulibihaihuizuochulixingdepanduan。](7)genjumuqiandewuranhuanjingsifashijian,yishifajinshuebuzuyidaxiaobeigaorendefanzuichongdong,ershibulunbeigaorenshijidejingjinengli,jibianbeigaorenyuanyichengdangaojiadefanzuichengben——qiantishinenggouhuodejiaoqingdechufa,danguidingbingmeiyouweiqitigongfalvshangdeyiju。yinci,zaibeigaorenrenzuirenfaxiayingdangweixingshihejiedeshiyongtigongyidingdekongjian。

    pojielujing: xingshihejiezaiwuranhuanjinganjianzhongshiyongdekexingxing

幸运28官网    taolunxingshihejiezhiduzaiwuranhuanjinganjianzhongshiyongshi,wufaraokaidedehuatishi: yifangmian,paokaixianyoulifaduixingshihejiexianzhixingguidingbulun,youyuxiangdangyibufenwuranhuanjinganjianmeiyouchuantongyiyishangde“beihairen”,zaililunshanggaizhonganjianruhexingshihejie;lingyifangmian,ruhezaisifashijianzhongshiyongxingshihejieyijijianghuichanshengshenmeyangdejieguo。

幸运28官网   lilunshang: wuranhuanjinganjianxingshihejieshiyongdejichu

幸运28官网    wuranhuanjinganjianxianshibiaoxianchulaideleixingduozhongduoyang,jibenshangkeyihuafenweichunwuranhuanjinganjianhewuranhuanjingqiezaochengrenshen、caichansunhaideanjian。duiyuhouzheyinweishejidaorenshenquanhecaichanquanzaiquedingbeihairenshibijiaorongyi,beiqinquanrenkeyizuoweidangshirencanyuhejie。danqianzheyinweizhishiduihuanjingzaochenglepohuai,yincimeiyouyibanyiyishangde“beiqinhairen”,jiujingyousheilaizuoweiquanlizhutini?lingwai,wuranhuanjingqinhaideketi(fayi)zaililunshanghaiyouzhuduozhengyi。[(8) guanyuhuanjingfanzuiqinfandeketizhuyaoguandianyou: huanjingbaohuzhidushuo、gonggonganquanshuo、shuangzhongketishuo、duozhongketishuo、huanjingquanshuodeng。](8)jiyuyishangyuanyin,wuranhuanjingshiyongxingshihejiemianlinzhuduolilunshangdezhangai。yexuhuangejiaoduqusikaogengyouliyuliqingzheiyiwenti。bidui《xingfaxiuzhengan(ba)》dexiugaineirongkeyikanchu,di338tiaoyou“zhongdahuanjingwuranshiguzui”gaiwei“wuranhuanjingzui”,gouzuitiaojianyeyou“zaochengzhongdahuanjingwuranshigu,zhishigonggongcaichanzaoshouzhongdasunshihuozherenshenshangwangdeyanzhonghouguo”genggaiwei“qingjieyanzhong”。zheizhonggaibianjiangyuanlaichufadejichuyifuyuduirenzaochengshanghaizhuanbianweiduihuanjingzaochengdesunhai,biaozhizhehuanjinglifaliniandezhuanbian——congyirenweizhongxinhuanjingsifaliniandaohuanjingbenweisixiang,qianzhelinianzhonghuanjingbenshenbujuyouliyizhutizige,suoyoudehuanjingliyizhinengyilaiyurenleicainengbiaoxianchulai,huanjingzhishirenleidegongju,yincixiugaiqiande338tiaogouzuiyaojianbiranyaoqiuzaochengduirendesunhai,duihuanjingdebaohuzhishizaichufaduirendeqinquanshide“fudaixingwei”。xiudingzhihouwuranhuanjingdexingweibenshenchengweixingfachufadeduixiang,jianghuanjingquanyishangshengdaoleyigexindegaodu。yinci,xiangbijiaochuantongfanzuiqinfandefayi,huanjingfayibujinjinbaohanrenshen、caichanliyi,haibaokuoshengtaizishenliyi,yinci,huanjingquanjuyoufayideneizaishuxing,wuranhuanjingxingweiqinhaileguojiadeshengtaifayi。lingwai,shengtailiyishibushuyurenheyigegerenershuyushehuiquanti,ruojiangsuoyourendoushiweiquanlizhuti,shibihuichansheng“gongdibeiju”xiaoying。[(9) gongdizuoweiyixianggonggongziyuan,meigerendouyoushiyongquan,meigerenweileliyizuidahuadouyoukenengguodudeshiyong,congerzaochengziyuankujie。huanjingziyuanzuoweigonggongziyuanyeyoukenengdaozhigongminduihuanjingdeguodushiyonghuozhepohuai,meigerenduiyuzuzhijixuehuadougandaowunengweili。](9)yidanyoulewuranshigu,duihuanjingpohuaidehouguo“maidan”dejiangshizhenggeguojia,suizhidaozhizhengfudeweixinjiangdi、shengcunhuanjingehuadengyixilieshehuiwenti。yinci,guojiabixuchengdanxiangyingdeyiwu,guzai“chunhuanjingwurananjian”zhong,guojiakeyizuoweidaibiaojinxingzhuisu、hejie。zaizheifangmian,xuduodifangdoujinxingletansuo,biru,tangshanshijianchajiguanduiwuranhuanjingdebeigaorenjinxingxingshifudaiminshisusong,yaoqiubeigaorenyifatingzhiqinhai、paichufangai、xiufuhuanjing、peichangsunshideng,zaitiqigongsuqian,xianxingduiminshibufenjinxingdiaojie,jijicushifanzuixianyirenjishixiufuhuanjing。[(10) yuexiangyang、lipengfei、wangyuxing: 《jianchajiguantiqixingshifudaiminshisusonggongzuodeshijianyutansuo——yishengtaihuanjingbaohulingyuweili》,zai《zhongguojianchaguan》2017niandi267qi,di39ye。](10)

幸运28官网    (er)linianshang: xingshihejieyuhuifuxingsifadeqihe

    xianjieduanduigezhongweifaxingweidechufazuinenggouqidaojingshizuoyongdemoguoyuxingshizhicai,wuranhuanjingxingweiyeshiruci。anzhaoxingfalilun,yibanyufangrenweixingfademudezaiyuduishehuidazhongxingchengxinliqiangzhideweihexiaoguo,tebieyufangrenweixingfademudezaiyuyufanggebierenzaifanzui。[(11) linyuxiong: 《xinxingfazongze》,zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe2009nianban,di12ye。](11)xingfamudezhengdanghuayijujianlizaixingfadediyicikongzhijineng——baohushimindeanquanliyi。[(12) 【ri】cenggenweiyan: 《xingfaxuejichu》,lihongyi,falvchubanshe,2005nianban,di53ye。](12)danshiwulunshibaoyinglunhaishiyufanglundouyoujuxianxing,jiangxingshizerenhexingfaxianghuhuntong,guanzhudejiaodiandouzaiyutongguoxingfadiaozhengrenyurenhuozherenyuguojiadeguanxi,doushiyirenweizhongxinde,yeshiwufayouxiaodishixianxingshishenpanzaizhiliwuranhuanjingzhongzuoyongdezhongyaoyuanyin。suizhexingshisifalilunbuduandefazhan,“huifuxingsifalilun”yingyunersheng。yuchuantongxingshisifamoshizhongdexingfade“heilian”jiaosebutong,huifuxingsifashiyizhongguanzhubeihairenzaoshoudesunshidehuifuchengxu、qiangdiaofanzuirenduiqizaochengdesunhaichengdanzeren、zhongjianshequhepingdefanzuifanyingfangshi。[(13) songyinghui、xushenjian: 《huifuxingsifachengxuzhisikao》,zai《xiandaifaxue》2004niandi3qi,di33ye。](13)taguanzhudejiaodianzaiyuruheshixianfanzuiren、beihairenyijishehuizhijiandepingheng,mibuyouyufanzuixingweidailaideweihaihouguo。conghuifuxingsifaguochengkan,beigaoren、beihairenherenheshoufanzuixingweiyingxiangdegerenhuozhediqujijicanyujiejueshiwudeguocheng,gaiguochengxuyaozaidisanfangdebangzhuhediaojiexiawancheng。xingshihejiedelifamudeyeshitongguojiahairenduibeihairenjinxingpeilidaoqian、peichangsunshidengxingshi,cuchenggefangzhijianjingjishang、jingshenshangheshehuishangdepingheng,huanheyouyufanzuixingweidailaidegezhongshehuimaodunhejinzhangguanxi。suoyihuifuxingsifahexingshihejiezaishizhijingshenheshiyongguochengshangshiyizhide,erzhecezhongdebushiruhe“chengzhi”ershiruhe“xiediao”。huanjingfanzuihouguoyingxiangmianhenda,yincishihoudewuranzhilibidanchundexingshidajiyaozhongyaodeduo。genjuqianshutongjishuju,muqiansifashijianduiwuranhuanjingdexingshichengfashishifenyouxiande,yifangmianqibudaochengzhiheweishezuoyong,lingyifangmianyebuliyuhuanjingdexiufu,yincirangbeigaorenjijixiufuhuanjingwuyishizuiweizhongyaode。xianjieduanshengtaifanzuihuifuxingsifazhujianbeixuezheheshiwujiesuorenzhiherentong,bingqiebuduandetansuoxingyunyong。huanjinganjianhuifuxingsifayudaodepingjingshibeigaorencaiquxiangyingdecuoshimibuyouyuzijidexingweidaozhidehuanjingpohuaidexingweibingfeifadingcongqingqingjie,shenpanshizhinengzuoweiliangxingqingjiezhuoqingyuyikaolv,jutinengcongqingdaohezhongchengdu,meiyourenhebiaozhun。kaolvwuranhuanjingxingweideshehuiyingxiangyijizuixingfadingyuanze,faguanzaishiyongcailiangquanshiwangwangshifenjinshen。youyuquefaliangxingdejilizuoyong,beigaorenhuifushengtaihuanjingdejijixingbiranbugao。xingshihejieshuyufadingdeliangxingqingjie,genjuliangxingguifanhuayijian,duiyudangshirengenjuxingshisusongfadachengxingshihejiexieyide,zonghekaolvfanzuixingzhi、peichangshue、peilidaoqianyijizhenchenghuizuidengqingkuang,keyijianshaojizhunxingde50%yixia;fanzuijiaoqingde,keyijianshaojizhunxingde50%yishanghuozheyifamianchuchufa。yinci,xingshihejiedeshiyongjiangshidehuifuxingsifazaishenliguochengzhongzhenzhengdedaoguanche。

    (san)shijianshang: sifashijiandeshizhengzhichi

幸运28官网    jinnianlai,xuduoxuezheyijisifagongzuorenyuanduiruheniuzhuanshenpanzhihouwuranhouguorengrancunzaidejumianjinxingyanjiu,tichulexuduobaoguideyijian。biru,hainanshenggaoyuanfaguanyudehoutichulehuanjingshenpanfeixingfahuacuoshi,bingfenxilefeixingfahuadesizhongmoshi(panjuepanxiangmoshi、liangxingqingjiemoshi、fudaiminshisusongmoshi、zhixingjiandumoshi)yijixianshizhongshiyongkunjinghechulu。[(14) yudehou: 《huanjingshenpanfeixingfahuacuoshideshengchengjiwanshanlujing》,zai《xinanjiaotongdaxuexuebao(shehuikexueban)》2017niandi2qi,di135-141ye。](14)zuigaorenminfayuanfaguanwangxuguangtichu,huanjingziyuanshenpanjiyaoyifafahuisifabaohuzhinengzuoyong,yeyaotuidonghuanjingwentizonghezhili;jiyaoguanchesunhaidanzeyuanze,yeyaozhuzhongyufangxingsifacuozhihehuifuxingfalvzerendeyunyong。[(15) wangxuguang: 《lundangqianhuanjingziyuanshenpangongzuoderuoganjibenguanxi》,zai《falvshiyong》2014niandi11qi,di56ye。](15)sifashijianzhongyebufahenduonenggouyingshechuxingshihejiesiweideanli,biru,guizhoushengqingzhenshifayuanzaiduilangmoudaofalinmuanzuochupanjueshi,panqizaipanjueshushengxiao90rineizaianfadibuzhongshumiao147zhu。[(16) (anli)xiangjianguizhoushengqingzhenshirenminfayuan(2007)qinghuanbaoxingchuzidi1haoxingshipanjueshu。](16)zhongqingshiyubeiqufayuanzaizhangmoudengrenfeifabulaoshuichanpinanzhong,jianyuqiziyuanchuzidaojialingjiangfangyangyumiaoxiufushengtai,zuoweiliangxingqingjieduiqixuancongqingchufa。[(17) (anli)xiangjianzhongqingshiyubeiqurenminfayuan(2014)yubeifahuanxingchuzidi8haoxingshipanjueshu。](17)zheixiecuoshibujinshixianleduifanzuifenzidechengfatongshiyeyouxiaodexiufulehuanjing,shixianleshuangyingmude,weiwuranhuanjingdexiufutigonglekecankaoxingyiju。chuleyishangsifashijian,yixiezhengceheguifanyebuduandexinahejiedejingshen,2015nian,zhonggongzhongyangbangongting、guowuyuanbangongtingyinfale《shengtaihuanjingsunhaipeichangzhidugaigeshidianfaan》,gaicuoshidemubiaoshitansuojianlishengtaihuanjingsunhaidexiufuhepeichangzhidu,2017nianshidiandifangbuduanchutaijuticuoshi,gulibeigaorenchengdanxiufuyiwu。2016nianzuigaorenminfayuan、zuigaorenminjianchayuanzhidingde《guanyubanlihuanjingwuranxingshianjianshiyongfalvruoganwentidejieshi》di5tiaoguiding: “duiyugangdadaoyingdangzhuijiuxingshizerenbiaozhundanxingweirencaiqucuoshi,fangzhisunshikuoda、xiaochuwuran,quanbupeichangsunshi,jijixiufushengtaihuanjing,qiexichufan,youhuizuibiaoxiande,keyirendingweiqingjieqingwei,buqisuhuozhemianyuxingshichufa;queyoubiyaopanchuxingfade,yingdangcongkuanchufa。”gaitiaotixianchuzuigaosifajiguanbuzaidanyiqiangdiaoduibeigaorendexingshichufa,ershicezhongruheshixianwuranhouguodezhili,gulibeigaorenjijicaiqucuoshihuifushengtaihuanjing。yinci,zaishenpanguochengzhong,yingyixingshihejiedeyunyongweixingshi,yizengjiafajinhuozheqitacuoshiweishouduan,jiadacongqingdechufadebili,jiangbufenfajinnaruhuanjingbaohujijinzhong,jiejuehuanjingwuranhouguofangrenbuguandexianzhuang。

jieyu

   xianjieduanduiwuranhuanjingfanzuideshenlizaishijianzhongsuofahuidezuoyonghaiyuanmeiyoudadaoyuqidexiaoguo。xingfadeqianyixingbubirandaozhihuanxingdedaliangshiyong。xingyun28guanwangguowuranhuanjingdesifashenpanbunengjinjinjuxianyuchengzhiheyufangfanzui,haiyinggaishiyingshidaihezhidudebianqianeryousuozuowei,jiyihuifuxingsifalinianxiufubeipohuaidehuanjing。bizhetongguoshizhengfenxifangfafaxiansifajiguanshenliwuranhuanjinganjiandexianzhuangyijicunzaidewenti,bingtichushishiyinruxingshihejie,yifadingxingshiduibeigaorenyuyicongqingchufacongertigaobeigaorenxiufuhuanjingjijixing。youyushuipinghenengliyouxian,bizhezhishichubudetansuo,gengweijingzhun、wanshandeyijianhaiyoudaijinyibudeyanjiu。wulunxingfayufangyehao、shengtaihuifusifayeba,bizhezhishimanhuaiqidai,qiwangdeshi“wangdejianqingshan、kandejianlvshui、jidezhuxiangchou”。

cankaowenxian:

[1]yuhaisong.huanjingziyuanfanzuishiwujingjie[m].beijing:falvchubanshe,2017:27-33.

幸运28官网[2]linyuxiong.xinxingfazongze[m].beijing:zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe,2009:10-15.

[3]jiaoyanpeng.xingfashengtaifayilun[m].beijing:zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe,2012:52-57.

[4]cenggenweiyan.xingfaxuejichu[m].lihongyi,beijing:falvchubanshe,2005:53-55.

[5]chenqingrui.wuranhuanjingzuifalvshiyongderuoganwenti[j].renminsifa,2016,(4):67-72.

[6]houyanfang,fengdianmei.lunhuifuxingsifazaihuanjingfanzuichengzhizhongdeshiyongkongjian[j].nanjingnongyedaxuexuebao(shehuikexueban),2008,8(1):69-73.

[7]fengweiguo.lunxingyun28guanwangguohuanjingfanzuixingshichengchujizhizhiwanshan[j].zhongguohuanjingfazhi,2008,259.

[8]dunning、fengjun.huanjingfanzui’sanyuanhua’zhicaitixizhijiangou——yizhicaimudezhiyouxiaoshixianweizhongxinzhankai[j].hebeidaxuexuebao(zhexueshehuikexueban),2015,40(4):119-124.

幸运28官网[9]chenhaisong.huanjingsifasanshenheyidejianshiyuwanshan[j].zhongzhouxuekan,2016,4(232):55-59.

幸运28官网[10]wangxuguang.lundangqianhuanjingziyuanshenpangongzuoderuoganguanxi[j].falvshiyong,2014,(232):56.

幸运28官网[11]hequn.xingyun28guanwangguoshengtaifanzuihuanxingshiyongwentiyanjiu[j].liaoningdaxuexuebao(zhexueshehuikexueban),2016,44(6):114-120.

zerenbianji: yanjiushi    

wenzhangchuchu: qiaoxiqurenminfayuanbaosong    


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