幸运28官网

当前位置: 法学思想 -> 审判研究

公益诉讼问题研究(2016.12)

  发布时间: 2019-04-30 07:55:53


 lunwentiyao:

幸运28官网 jinnianlai,suizhexingyun28guanwangguojingjibuduanfazhan,minzhongfalvyishizengqiang,youguanbaohugonggongliyideminshianjianbuduanzengduo,bulunshifalvjiederenshihaishiputongdazhongdouhuyujianligongyisusongdezhidu,2012nian8yue31ri,xingyun28guanwangguo《minshisusongfa》diercixiuzhengantongguo,xinminsufadiwushiwutiaoguiding: “duiwuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyidengsunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei,falvguidingdejiguanheyouguanzuzhikeyixiangrenminfayuantiqisusong。”gongyisusongzhidudejianlishixingyun28guanwangguozheicixiugaiminsufadeliangdianzhiyi,taguidinglegongyisusongdeshouanfanwei,yeguidinglegongyisusongyuangaozige,shiduishehuiguanlidechuangxin,youliyuxingyun28guanwangguoshichangjingjidefazhan,youliyuxingyun28guanwangguohexieshehuidejianli,bingqieyouliyuminzhonggenghaodecanyudaoguojiashiwudeguanlidangzhong。danshixingyun28guanwangzaiqudejinbudetongshi,yingdangrenshidaobuzu,xianzaixingyun28guanwangguodegongyisusongzhidujianlishijianhaibuzhang,falvguidingfangmianhaibugouchongzu,xingyun28guanwangtongguoduitaguogongyisusongdeyanjiuhefenxixingyun28guanwangguogongyisusongdexianzhuang,cainenggenghaodituijingongyisusongzhidudefazhan。benpianlunwengongjizishu6066zi。

 zhuyaochuangxinguandian:

 benwenjiangzaiyixiajigefangmianjichuzijideguandianjijieshi,shouxianzaiguanyugongyisusongdeyuangaoshigewentishangshifouyingdangbaohanziranren;qiciguanyugongyisusongdeshouanfanweishifouyingdangjinxingxiangyingdekuozhan;zaici,guanyugongyisusongdeshousufayuan,guanxiaquan;zuihou,gongyisusongshifoukeyishiyongdiaojie。

 yixiazhengwen:

 xiandaishehui,geguodouyouduiyugongyisusongjinxinglexiangguandesifabaohu,jianlilegongyisusongdezhidu。zaixingyun28guanwangguo,suizhejingjidebuduanfazhan,minzhongfalvweiquanyishibuduanjinbu,yechuxianleyixiebujinjinweihugerensili,yeweihugonggongliyideanjian,yincifalvyejierenshiheyouguanbumenduociqiangliehuyuzaiminshisusongfazhongzengjiaguanyuminshigongyisusongzhidudeguiding,2012nianxingyun28guanwangguo《minshisusongfa》diercixiuzhengantongguo,qizhongdiwushiwutiaojiubaohanleduigongyisusongzhidudeguiding,gongyisusongzhidudejianlishiduixingyun28guanwangguoshehuiguanlidechuangxinhejinbu,danshibukefourendeshixingyun28guanwangguoduigongyisusongzhidudejianliqibujiaowan,xianyouguidingshangbuchengshu,xuyaozaibuduanzongjiekeguanxianshidezhuangtaixiazhubuwanshan。

 gongyisusongdedingyijixingyun28guanwangguogongyisusongdexianzhuang

 gongyisusongzuizaoqiyuanyuguluoma,dangshiguluomajiuyijingqufenlegongyisusonghesiyisusong,guluomasuoguidingdegongyisusongjiushibaohushehuigonggongliyidesusong,chufalvyoutebieguidingzhewai,fanshiminjunletiqi。[1]

 xiandaiguojiadegongyisusongzhiduyiyingmeifaxiguojiazuiweifada,dalufaxisuishuoyeyouzijidegongyisusongzhidu,danshichuyuduichuantonggainiandejingu,xiangduiyuyingmeifaxideguojialaishuoqigongyisusongzhiduhaishixiangduiluohou。meiguodegongyisusongzhidujiaoweiwanshan,youxuduofalvtiaowenyongyiguifangongyisusongzhidu,lirucong1863niande《fanqipianzhengfufa》daohoulaide《xieermanfantuolasifaan》、huanjingbaohufayiji《kelaidunfa》,junguidinglegerenhuozhezhengfujiguankeyitiqigongyisusong。yingguodegongyisusongzhiduzhongjianchazhangshifalvguidingdeweiyiyigezaifatingshangyouquandaibiaogongzhongderen,sirenhuozhesirenzuzhizhiyouzaiqudejianchazhangtongyihoucainengtiqigongyisusong,dangran,chuciyiwai,yingguodegongyisusongzhiduhaiyouyixieyuangaozhuti,birushuozhongzupingdengweiyuanhuiduixingbie、zhongzuqishiyoutiqisusongdequanli。dalufaxizhong,deguodegongyisusongcaiqudeshibijiaobaoshoudeguiding,susongyuangaodezhutizigejinxianyujianchayuanhetuantisusong。faguodegongyisusongzhiduyeshiguidingleyoujianchayuanhetuantitiqisusong,shenzhifaguoshidiyigeguidingyoujianchajiguantiqigongyisusongdeguojia,xianzaizheixiangzhidubeigeguocaina,faguodetuantisusongzhiduyejiaoweifada,taduihezhongtuantikeyitiqigongyisusongzuolejiaoweimingquedeguiding。

 xingyun28guanwangguozai2012nian8yue31ri,tongguode《minshisusongfa》diercixiuzhengandiwushiwutiaoguiding: “duiwuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyidengsunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei,falvguidingdejiguanheyouguanzuzhikeyixiangrenminfayuantiqisusong。”zici,shehuigonggongliyibeinarulexingyun28guanwangguominshisusongfadebaohufanwei,gongyisusongzhiduzaixingyun28guanwangguoyoulemingwenguiding。

 jiuxingyun28guanwangguogongyisusongguidingdeqianxi

 《minshisusongfa》diercixiuzhengandiwushiwutiaoguiding: “duiwuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyidengsunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei,falvguidingdejiguanheyouguanzuzhikeyixiangrenminfayuantiqisusong。”gaifatiaoguidinglegongyisusongdeshouanfanwei,yuangaozige,keyishuojigongyisusongzhidinglejibendefanchou,danbijingchuyushishidechushijieduan,xinminshisusongfadeguidingyoubijiaoyuanze,zhishiweizheixiangsusongzhidudechuanglitigonglefalvyiju,yincibuguanshizaiduitiaokuandelijiefangmianhaishishiyongfangmian,jutideshishiguizeshangxuzaisifashijianzhongjinyibutansuo。

幸运28官网    (yi)guanyuyuangaozhutizige

幸运28官网 diwushiwutiaoguiding: “......,falvguidingdejiguanheyouguanzuzhikeyixiangrenminfayuantiqisusong。”guanyufalvguidingdejiguan,dazhongdoupubianrenweirenminjianchayuanjiaoweishihetiqigongyisusong,zheixiangguandianzaixingyun28guanwangkanlaiwukehoufei,bingqiezai2015nian7yue1ri,shierjiequanguorendachangweihuidishiwucihuiyizhongzuochu《guanyushouquanzuigaorenminjianchayuanzaibufendiqukaizhangongyisusongshidiangongzuodejueding》,xiangyingdexuanzelebeijing、neimenggu、jilin、jiangsu、anhui、fujian、shandong、hubei、guangdong、guizhou、yunnan、shanxi、gansu13gesheng、zizhiqu、zhixiashidejianchayuankaizhanweiqiliangniandegongyisusonggaigeshidian,xiangxintongguoshidiangongzuodejinxing,zhubunengzongjiechujianchayuanzuoweigongyisusongyuangaozhutizigeruhenenggougenghaodeshishitadequanli。danshiguanyuyouguanzuzhidefanwei,dajiapubianbijiaokunhuo,yindiwushiwutiaoguidingdegongyisusongshouanfanweishiduiwuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyidengsunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei,neishifourenhedehuanbaozuzhiyijixiaofeizhexiehuidouyouquantiqigongyisusong,suoyiguanyuyuangaozhutizigede“youguanzuzhi”derending,xuyaorenminfayuanzaisifashijianzhongzhubutansuoqueding,youyugongyisusongchuyushishidechushijieduan,sifajingyanjishijianjingyandoubuzu,“youguanzuzhi”dexingzhi、susongnengligebuxiangtongdeqingkuangxia,weibaozhangzaiweihushehuihexiewendingdeqiantixiayouxu、youxiaokaizhangongyisusong,yingdangdui“youguanzuzhi”dezigejinxingxijieshangderending,zaicixingyun28guanwangkeyijiejianfaguoduiyutuantitiqigongyisusongdeguiding,faguoguidingfaguodezhiyexinghuizaiyixiadeqingkuangxiaxiangyougongyisusongdesuquan: (1)xinghuibixushizhiyexinghui;(2)xinghuishuozhuiqiudeliyibixuyugaixinghuidemudeshiyizhi(3)suozhuisudeqinfangonggongliyidexingweimeiyougouchengxingshifanzuide。xingyun28guanwangkeyizaifaguoxianyoudeguidingdejichushang,genjuxingyun28guanwangguodeguoqingyijixiandaishehuideyaoqiudui“youguanzuzhi”yuyiguiding,yongyicujingongyisusongzhidudeshunlituixing。

 xingyun28guanwangguodegongyisusongzhidudeyuangaozhutizigexiandingweifalvguidingdejiguanheyouguanzuzhi,duiyuziranrenshifouyouquanlitiqigongyisusong,falvjieyeshizhongshuofenyun,yourenshuoyouxieanjianqueshishiziranrenqisude,danshitasuosudebujinjinguanhutazishendeliyi,qishiyeshejidaolegonggongliyi,yinciyejiushishuogaiziranrentiqideyeshigongyisusong,eryouxierenduigaixiangshuofabunengrentong,bizhezaiciyeshichibunengrentongdeguandian,yinweirenheqinfangonggongliyideanjianshibihuiqinfangerenliyi,ziranrensuotichudeminshisusongkenenghuishejidaogonggongliyidebufen,danshitazhishijiyusilishousunertiqisusong,gongyisusongjiejuedeshigonggongliyidesunshi,yusiyisusongyoumingxiandequbie,ruohegerenliyiguagou,suishuoyougongtongsusongdecunzai,neimexingyun28guanwangyeyaokaolvshibushihuidailaisusongjinghedewenti。yincibizherenweigongyisusongdeyuangaozhutizigezhongbuyingdangbaohanziranrendefanwei,danshi,xingyun28guanwangkeyicankaoyingguogongyisusongzhong“jianjurensusong”dexingshi,zaiyingguo,zhiyoujianchazhangnenggoudaibiaogongzhongtiqisusong,zuzhiweihaigonggongliyidebuzhengdangxingwei,gongmingmeiyoutiqigongyisusongdequanli,danshigongminkeyiqingqiujianchazhangrangqiquducuweihugonggongliyidesusong,erzaigaianjianzhongyuangaohaishijianchazhang,gongminzuoweijianjurencanjiasusong,suoyijiaozuo“jianjurensusong”,zheigemoshidecunzaiyouqiyoushisuozai,yinweigongminshenghuozaishehuizhizhong,naxiexingweiyanzhongsunhailegonggongliyishigongmindeqieshentihui,jianjurensusongyinernenggougenghaodeshigongyisusongfahuiqidegongxiao。

    (er)guanyugongyisusongshouanfanwei

 congyishang《minshisusongfa》di55tiaoxingyun28guanwangkeyiqingchudekanchu,duiyugongyisusongdeshouanfanweizhishijiandandibiaoshuwei“wuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyidengsunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei”,guigenjiedi,xingyun28guanwangguogongyisusongdeshouanfanweishisunhaishehuigonggongliyidexingwei,zheizhongxingweibaokuowuranhuanjing、qinhaizhongduoxiaofeizhehefaquanyideng,yige“deng”zisuinengzaiyidingchengdushangbimianduiminshigongyisusongdefanweixiandingdeguoyuxiazhai,danshiquexianyeshihenmingxiande[2]。bimianleshigongyisusongdeshouanfanweiguoyuxiaai,danshiyezengtianlefayuanzaishouligongyisusonganjianshangdenandu,naxiexingweikeyishuoshiqinhaileshehuigonggongliyide,birushuoqinfanzuoweigonggongliyiyifangmiandelaodongzhegongzhongliyi,shifounenghouyougonghuihuozheqitazuzhitiqigongyisusong。 youyuxingyun28guanwangguohaichuyugongyisusongjianlidechushijieduan,buguanshicongsifashijianhaishicongxianshikaolv,lifadoubukenengduigongyisusongzuodaoxiangjindeguiding[3]。zaizheizhongqingkuangxiaruguoxiangyaojiangfalvyunyongyuxianshishehui,zuihaodefangfajiushijiezhufalvjieshi。danjiexialaimianlindewentishi,sheijiangyongyoujieshiquandewenti。kaolvdaogongyisusongbijingbutongyuyibandesusong,suoyiyidanjianchajiguanzuoweiqisuzhutichuxianshi,sihuzuigaorenminfayuanjiubuneimeheshizuoweijieshizhutile。cishizuihaodezuofashiyinggairangjieshiquanhuiguilifajiguan,ranglifajieshilaimingqueshouanfanwei。yaoxiangjinliangshigongyisusongdeshouanfanweiqingxihewanzhengdehua,yingjiehemuqianxianyoudesifashijian,jiangyijingchuxianqieweigefangsuorenkedeanjianjinxingshidangdeguilei,bingjiangqiliezaizaixiangyingdelifajieshitiaokuanzhong,ranhouzaiyunyongdouditiaokuanzuochujuyoubaorongxingdedanxingguiding。fouzejinyikaofaguandeziyoucailiangquan,dadazengjialegongyisusongdeshishinandu。  

    (san)guanyugongyisusongshousufayuan

幸运28官网 gongyisusongdebenshenxingzhiqishiyeshiyizhongqinquandexingwei,buguotasuoqinfandeshishehuigongzhong、butedingrenqundegongzhongliyi。《zhonghuarenmingongheguominshisusongfa》diershibatiaoguiding: “yinqinquanxingweitiqidesusong,youqinquanxingweidihuozhebeigaorenzhusuodirenminfayuanguanxia”。zuigaorenminfayuanguanyushiyong《zhonghuarenmingongheguominshisusongfa》dejieshidiershisitiaoguiding: “minshisusongfadiershibatiaoguidingdeqinquanxingweidi,baokuoqinquanxingweishishidi、qinquanjieguofashengdi”。

 zuoweiqinquanxingweideyizhong,bizherenweiyingdangcankaominshisusongzhongdeqinquanxingweishousufayuandeguiding。youxiexuezherenweizaimuqianminshigongyisusongchubushixingjieduan,weibaozhenganjianshenlixiaoguo,qingxiangrenweigongyisusongyuanzeshangyingyouqinquanxingweidihuozhebeigaozhusuodizhongjirenminfayuanshouli,zheizhongguandianshikaolvdaogongyisusongbijingshiqinfangongzhongliyidesusong,duibenxiaquyouzhezhongdayingxiang,《zhonghuarenmingongheguominshisusongfa》dishibatiaoguidingzaibenxiaquyouzhongdayingxiangdeanjianyouzhongjirenminfayuanguanxia,kejianshangshuguandianshihelihefade。

幸运28官网    (si)guanyugongyisusongshifoukeyishiyongdiaojie

幸运28官网 zaigongyisusongdezhiduzhong,guanyugongyisusongnengfoushiyongdiaojie,yizhicunzaijiaodazhengyi。yourenrenweigongyisusongshijiyugonggongliyishousunertiqidesusong,jiugongyisusongjinxingdiaojiejiyoukenenghuizaochenggonggongliyishousun,jinerrenweigongyisusongbuyingdangshiyongdiaojie。zaibizhekanlai,zaisiyisusongzhong,diaojiezhiduyeshizaibudesunhaitarenheshehuigonggongliyidejichushangdachengde,yincidiaojiezhidubenshen,wulunshigongyisusonghaishisiyisusongjunbudesunhaishehuigonggongliyi。erqiexingyun28guanwangyingdangkandaodiaojiekeyishigonggongliyijishidedaoyouxiaotianbu,jieshengsifaziyuan,bingbubiranshigonggongliyishousun。yinci,yuanzeshangzaibusunhaishehuigonggongliyideqiantixia,minshigongyisusongrengrankeyishiyongdiaojie,danbushiyingdangshiyongdiaojie,duinaxiegongyisusonganjiankeyishiyongdiaojie,ruhediaojiexuyaoxiangguanfalvjinxingzhicheng,yexuyaofaguandeziyoucailiangquandepanduan。

幸运28官网    (wu)gongyisusongzhidudejuzhengzerenwenti

    gongyisusongzuoweisusongdefangshizhiyi,tongyangcunzaizhengmingzerendewenti。xianjieduan,xingyun28guanwangguojuzhengzerenyibanshisheizhuzhang,sheijuzheng,youjuzhengzerenfangfuzejuzheng,fayuanzhinengyizhengmingzerendefudanyuanzelaizuochupanjue。duiyugongyisusonganjianzhongyouyixiawentixuyaozhengming: (1)shifouyouqinhaigonggongliyidexingweifasheng;(2)gaixingweishifouzaochenglegonggongliyishousunhuochuyushousundezhuangtai;(3)zaochenggaisunhaiderenshifoujuyoufalvzerennengli;(4)zaochengsunhaiderendexingweishifouweifanfalvdeguiding;(5)zaochengsunhaiderenshifouyouguocuo;(6)sunhaixingweiyusunhaijieguozhijianshifoucunzaiyinguolianxi。xingyun28guanwangguoxianzaiduiqinquananzhongzhongdezhengmingzerendefenpeicankaodeshizuigaorenminfayuan《guanyuminshisusongzhengjuderuoganguiding》,qizhongdisitiaoguanyuteshuqinquananjianzhongdezhengmingzerenfenpeideguidingzhongyouguanyu“huanjingwuran”he“chanpinxiaci”dengjixiangguiding,gongyisusongqishiyeshiqinquansusongdeyizhong,qiyejuyouyidingdeteshuxing,suoyibizherenwei,zaigongyisusonganjianzhong,yuangaoxuzhengmingliangjianshiqing,jiyouqinhaigonggongliyidexingweifashenghegaixingweizaochenglegonggongliyideshousun;erbeigaofangyingdangchengdanqibuyingdangchengdanzerendejuzhengzeren,rubeigaobujubeifalvzerennengli,beigaodexingweiyusunhaijieguomeiyouyinguolianxi,xingweirendexingweimeiyouweifaxing,xingweirenmeiyouguocuodeng。

(liu)gongyisusongzhidudesusongfeiyongchengdan

 zaiguanyugongyisusongdesusongfeiyongdechengdanfangmian,youyu dangshirentiqigongyisusongdemudezhuyaoshiweileweihugonggongliyierweisili,bingqiekaolvdaoqisuyifangwangwangweishilijiaoruoyifang,yinci,susongfeiyongdechengdanwentiyexiandeyouweizhongyao。ruguosusongfeiyongdeshezhiheli,budannenggoujianqingyuangaodefudan,tigaoshehuigongzhongcanyuminshigongyisusongdejijixing,erqiezaiyidingchengdushangnengdadaoyizhilansuxiaoguo。

幸运28官网 zonghekaolvgefangmianyinsuhou,keshezhiruxiafeiyongfendanguize:

 yuangaofangsusongfeidechengdan

幸运28官网   youyuyuangaodiweiyibanxiangduijiaoruojiazhigongyisusonganjiandefuzaxing,weilejianqingyuangaodesusongfudan,youbiyaoshelileisiyugongyisusongweiyuanhuidezuzhiyongyuzhichigongyisusong,danqizhichudefeiyongyoushangxian。xuyaoshi,yuangaoyingxiangweiyuanhuishenqing,bingyuqidachengyizhiyijian。lingwai,ruguoyuangaotiqidesusongqueweiminshigongyisusong,gongyisusongweiyuanhuibudejujuechengdanxiangyingdefeiyong。danshigongyisusongweiyuanhuixiangyouxiangyingdezhuisuoquan,jiqichengdandesuoyoufeiyongkeyixiangbaisudebeigaojinxingzhuisuo。

幸运28官网   baisuhoubeigaosusongfeidechengdan

幸运28官网   chuyuduiyuanbeigaoshuangfangbeigaojingjishilidekaolv,fayuankeyipanjueshengsubeigaodesusongfeiyongyouqizijichengdanhuozheyouyuangaofendanyidingbili。

   lvshifeiyongdechengdan

幸运28官网    xiangbijiaoyuyibanminshisusongeryan,gongyisusongzhonganjianxiangduifuza,zheijiuyaoqiulvshiyaotouruhendadejingli,neimelvshifeiyongziranyejiuxiangduijiaogao。yifangmian,yuangaokeyixianggongyisusongweiyuanhuishenqingzhichi。lingyifangmian,jiranshigongyisusong,keyijinliangxunzhaogongyilvshi,huozhejianligongyilvshizhidu[4]

    san、gongyisusongzhiduduixingyun28guanwangguodeqishi

 gongyisusongzhiduduixingyun28guanwangguojuyouzhongyaodexianshiyiyi,bizhecongyixiajigefangmianjinxingchanshu。

幸运28官网 gongyisusongzhiduyouyiyushichangjingjidefazhan

幸运28官网    gongyisusongzhidudejianlikeyiyouxiaodeweihushichangjingjizhixu,baohushichangjingjidefazhan。xianzaiyouxiegongminweilebaohuxiaofeizhedehefaquanyiyizhifendouzaidajiadediyixian,xianzaiyingkeguanshijideyaoqiu,gongyisusongzhidudejianli,jiangweihuxiaofeizhehefaquanyidegongyisusongxingchengzhidu,bujinyouliyuxiaofeizhequanyidebaohu,gengyouliyuxingyun28guanwangguoshichangjingjidexingyun28guanwang。

 gongyisusongzhidudejianlishifazhijinbudebiaoxian

幸运28官网    gongyisusongzhidudejianlishiduixingyun28guanwangguoxianzaigonggongliyibaohumangqudebuchong。xingyun28guanwangxianzaisuocunzaidesanzhongsusongxingshi,——minshisusong,xingshisusong,xingzhengsusong,minshisusongduigonggongliyidebaohuzhinengtongguodaibiaorensusongdexingshichengxian,danshiduiyuweinengtongguodaibiaorensusongdeanjianerwunengweili;xingshisusongzhinengduiqinhaigonggongliyigouchengfanzuidexingweijinxingzhicai;xingzhengsusongzhishitongguoduijutixingzhengxingweideshenchalaibaohugonggongliyi,neimeduiyuweinengxingchengdaibiaorensusongqieyouweigouchengfanzuideqinhaigonggongliyidexingweigairuhejinxingchengzhi,neijiushigongyisusongdeyingyunersheng。

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幸运28官网    suizheminzhongquanliyishidejuexing,weihuzishenliyideyishijuexing,minzhongcanyugonggongliyibaohudehuodongdaduoyishangfang、jingzuo、weidujiguandefangshijinxing,qishizheizhongzuofayugongyisusongzhidubuchangtongbuwuguanxi,rujinxingyun28guanwangguoguidinglegongyisusongzhidu,minzhongdesuqiukeyiyoudefangshi,youliyuxingyun28guanwangguoshehuideandingtuanjie,youliyuhexieshehuideweihu。

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 [1]zhounan: 《luomafayuanli》,shangwuyinshuguan1996nianban,di886ye

幸运28官网 [2]honghao,dengxiaojing.gongyisusongzhongjianchaquandepeizhi[j].faxue,2013(7): 116-122.

幸运28官网 [3]cuishengbo.minshigongyisusongyuangaozigetanjiu[d].hainandaxue,2010.

幸运28官网 [4]liuhongbo.minshigongyisusongzhiduzhiwanshan

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